Principal component analysis for emergent acoustic signal detection with supporting simulation results
A method is introduced that uses principal component analysis (PCA) to detect emergent acoustic signals. Emergent signal detection is frequently used in radar applications to detect signals of interest in background clutter and in cognitive radio to detect the primary user in a frequency band. The method presented differs from other standard techniques in that the detection of the signal of interest is accomplished by detecting a change in the covariance between two channels of data instead of detecting the change in statistics of a single channel of data. For this paper, PCA is able to detect emergent acoustic signals by detecting when there is a change in the eigenvalue subspace of the covariance matrix caused by the addition of the signal of interest. The algorithm's performance is compared to an energy detector and the Neyman-Pearson theorem. Acoustic simulations were used to verify the performance of the algorithm. Simulations were also used to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm under various signal-to-interferer and signal-to-noise ratios, and using various test signals.