# Scholarly Works, Mechanical Engineering

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Research articles, presentations, and other scholarship

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- Reduced-Order Modeling for Dynamic System Identification with Lumped and Distributed Parameters via Receptance Coupling Using Frequency-Based Substructuring (FBS)Hamedi, Behzad; Taheri, Saied (MDPI, 2024-10-19)
Show more Paper presents an effective technique for developing reduced-order models to predict the dynamic responses of systems using the receptance coupling and frequency-based substructuring (RCFBS) method. The proposed approach is particularly suited for reconfigurable dynamic systems across various applications, like cars, robots, mechanical machineries, and aerospace structures. The methodology focuses on determining the overall system receptance matrix by coupling the receptance matrices (FRFs) of individual subsystems in a disassembled configuration. Two case studies, one with distributed parameters and the other with lumped parameters, are used to illustrate the application of this approach. The first case involves coupling three substructures with flexible components under fixed–fixed boundary conditions, while the second case examines the coupling of subsystems characterized by multiple masses, springs, and dampers, with various internal and connection degrees of freedom. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated against a numerical finite element analysis (FEA), direct methods, and a modal analysis. The results demonstrate the reliability of RCFBS in predicting dynamic responses for reconfigurable systems, offering an efficient framework for reduced-order modeling by focusing on critical points of interest without the need to account for detailed modeling with numerous degrees of freedom.Show more - Exploring the role of diffusive coupling in spatiotemporal chaosRaj, A.; Paul, Mark R. (AIP Publishing, 2024-10-07)
Show more We explore the chaotic dynamics of a large one-dimensional lattice of coupled maps with diffusive coupling of varying strength using the covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs). Using a lattice of diffusively coupled quadratic maps, we quantify the growth of spatial structures in the chaotic dynamics as the strength of diffusion is increased. When the diffusion strength is increased from zero, we find that the leading Lyapunov exponent decreases rapidly from a positive value to zero to yield a small window of periodic dynamics which is then followed by chaotic dynamics. For values of the diffusion strength beyond the window of periodic dynamics, the leading Lyapunov exponent does not vary significantly with the strength of diffusion with the exception of a small variation for the largest diffusion strengths we explore. The Lyapunov spectrum and fractal dimension are described analytically as a function of the diffusion strength using the eigenvalues of the coupling operator. The spatial features of the CLVs are quantified and compared with the eigenvectors of the coupling operator. The chaotic dynamics are composed entirely of physical modes for all of the conditions we explore. The leading CLV is highly localized and localization decreases with increasing strength of the spatial coupling. The violation of the dominance of Oseledets splitting indicates that the entanglement of pairs of CLVs becomes more significant between neighboring CLVs as the strength of diffusion is increased.Show more - Octopus-Inspired Adhesives with Switchable Attachment to Challenging Underwater SurfacesLee, Chanhong; Via, Austin C.; Heredia, Aldo; Adjei, Daniel A.; Bartlett, Michael D. (Wiley-VCH, 2024-10-09)
Show more Adhesives that excel in wet or underwater environments are critical for applications ranging from healthcare and underwater robotics to infrastructure repair. However, achieving strong attachment and controlled release on difficult substrates, such as those that are curved, rough, or located in diverse fluid environments, remains a major challenge. Here, an octopus-inspired adhesive with strong attachment and rapid release in challenging underwater environments is presented. Inspired by the octopus’s infundibulum structure, a compliant, curved stalk, and an active deformable membrane for multi-surface adhesion are utilized. The stalk’s curved shape enhances conformal contact on large-scale curvatures and increases contact stress for adaptability to small-scale roughness. These synergistic mechanisms improve contact across multiple length scales, resulting in switching ratios of over 1000 within ≈30 ms with consistent attachment strength of over 60 kPa on diverse surfaces and conditions. These adhesives are demonstrated through the robust attachment and precise manipulation of rough underwater objects.Show more - Covariant Lyapunov vectors of chaotic Rayleigh-Benard convectionXu, M.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2016-06-10)
Show more We explore numerically the high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos of Rayleigh-Bénard convection using covariant Lyapunov vectors. We integrate the three-dimensional and time-dependent Boussinesq equations for a convection layer in a shallow square box geometry with an aspect ratio of 16 for very long times and for a range of Rayleigh numbers. We simultaneously integrate many copies of the tangent space equations in order to compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors. The dynamics explored has fractal dimensions of 20?Dλ?50, and we compute on the order of 150 covariant Lyapunov vectors. We use the covariant Lyapunov vectors to quantify the degree of hyperbolicity of the dynamics and the degree of Oseledets splitting and to explore the temporal and spatial dynamics of the Lyapunov vectors. Our results indicate that the chaotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is nonhyperbolic for all of the Rayleigh numbers we have explored. Our results yield that the entire spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors that we have computed are tangled as indicated by near tangencies with neighboring vectors. A closer look at the spatiotemporal features of the Lyapunov vectors suggests contributions from structures at two different length scales with differing amounts of localization.Show more - Stochastic dynamics of micron-scale doubly clamped beams in a viscous fluidVilla, M. M.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2009-05-28)
Show more We study the stochastic dynamics of doubly clamped micron-scale beams in a viscous fluid driven by Brownian motion. We use a thermodynamic approach to compute the equilibrium fluctuations in beam displacement that requires only deterministic calculations. From calculations of the autocorrelations and noise spectra we quantify the beam dynamics by the quality factor and resonant frequency of the fundamental flexural mode over a wide range of experimentally accessible geometries. We consider beams with uniform rectangular cross section and explore the increased quality factor and resonant frequency as a baseline geometry is varied by increasing the width, increasing the thickness, and decreasing the length. The quality factor is nearly doubled by tripling either the width or the height of the beam. Much larger improvements are found by decreasing the beam length, however this is limited by the appearance of additional modes of fluid dissipation. Overall, the stochastic dynamics of the wider and thicker beams are well predicted by a two-dimensional approximate theory beyond what may be expected based upon the underlying assumptions, whereas the shorter beams require a more detailed analysis. © 2009 The American Physical Society.Show more - Quantifying spatiotemporal chaos in Rayleigh-Benard convectionKarimi, A.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2012-04-02)
Show more Using large-scale parallel numerical simulations we explore spatiotemporal chaos in Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical domain with experimentally relevant boundary conditions. We use the variation of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and the leading-order Lyapunov vector with system parameters to quantify states of high-dimensional chaos in fluid convection. We explore the relationship between the time dynamics of the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and the pattern dynamics. For chaotic dynamics we find that all of the Lyapunov exponents are positively correlated with the leading-order Lyapunov exponent, and we quantify the details of their response to the dynamics of defects. The leading-order Lyapunov vector is used to identify topological features of the fluid patterns that contribute significantly to the chaotic dynamics. Our results show a transition from boundary-dominated dynamics to bulk-dominated dynamics as the system size is increased. The spectrum of Lyapunov exponents is used to compute the variation of the fractal dimension with system parameters to quantify how the underlying high-dimensional strange attractor accommodates a range of different chaotic dynamics. © 2012 American Physical Society.Show more - Chaotic Rayleigh-Benard convection with finite sidewallsXu, M.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2018-07-02)
Show more We explore the role of finite sidewalls on chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We use large-scale parallel spectral-element numerical simulations for the precise conditions of experiment for cylindrical convection domains. We solve the Boussinesq equations for thermal convection and the conjugate heat transfer problem for the energy transfer at the solid sidewalls of the cylindrical domain. The solid sidewall of the convection domain has finite values of thickness, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity. We compute the Lyapunov vectors and exponents for the entire fluid-solid coupled problem. We quantify the chaotic dynamics of convection over a range of thermal sidewall boundary conditions. We find that the dynamics become less chaotic as the thermal conductivity of the sidewalls increases as measured by the value of the fractal dimension of the dynamics. The thermal conductivity of the sidewall is a stabilizing influence; the heat transfer between the fluid and solid regions is always in the direction to reduce the fluid motion near the sidewalls. Although the heat interaction for strongly conducting sidewalls is only about 1% of the heat transfer through the fluid layer, it is sufficient to reduce the fractal dimension of the dynamics by approximately 25% in our computations.Show more - Length scale of a chaotic element in Rayleigh-Benard convectionKarimi, A.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2012-12-20)
Show more We describe an approach to quantify the length scale of a chaotic element of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection layer exhibiting spatiotemporal chaos. The length scale of a chaotic element is determined by simultaneously evolving the dynamics of two convection layers with a unidirectional coupling that involves only the time-varying values of the fluid velocity and temperature on the lateral boundaries of the domain. In our results we numerically simulate the full Boussinesq equations for the precise conditions of experiment. By varying the size of the boundary used for the coupling we identify a length scale that describes the size of a chaotic element. The length scale of the chaotic element is of the same order of magnitude, and exhibits similar trends, as the natural chaotic length scale that is based upon the fractal dimension. © 2012 American Physical Society.Show more - Front propagation in a chaotic flow fieldMehrvarzi, C. O.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2014-07-21)
Show more We investigate numerically the dynamics of a propagating front in the presence of a spatiotemporally chaotic flow field. The flow field is the three-dimensional time-dependent state of spiral defect chaos generated by Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a spatially extended domain. Using large-scale parallel numerical simulations, we simultaneously solve the Boussinesq equations and a reaction-advection-diffusion equation with a Fischer-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov reaction for the transport of the scalar species in a large-aspect-ratio cylindrical domain for experimentally accessible conditions. We explore the front dynamics and geometry in the low-Damköhler-number regime, where the effect of the flow field is significant. Our results show that the chaotic flow field enhances the front propagation when compared with a purely cellular flow field. We quantify this enhancement by computing the spreading rate of the reaction products for a range of parameters. We use our results to quantify the complexity of the three-dimensional front geometry for a range of chaotic flow conditions. © 2014 American Physical Society.Show more - Spatiotemporal dynamics of the covariant Lyapunov vectors of chaotic convectionXu, M.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2018-03-27)
Show more We explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors for chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We use the inverse participation ratio to quantify the amount of spatial localization of the covariant Lyapunov vectors. The covariant Lyapunov vectors are found to be spatially localized at times when the instantaneous covariant Lyapunov exponents are large. The spatial localization of the Lyapunov vectors often occurs near defect structures in the fluid flow field. There is an overall trend of decreasing spatial localization of the Lyapunov vectors with increasing index of the vector. The spatial localization of the covariant Lyapunov vectors with positive Lyapunov exponents decreases an order of magnitude faster with increasing vector index than all of the remaining vectors that we have computed. We find that a weighted covariant Lyapunov vector is useful for the visualization and interpretation of the significant connections between the Lyapunov vectors and the flow field patterns.Show more - Hydrodynamic interactions of two nearly touching Brownian spheres in a stiff potential: Effect of fluid inertiaRadiom, Milad; Robbins, Brian; Paul, Mark R.; Ducker, William (American Institute of Physics, 2015-02-26)
Show more The hydrodynamic interaction of two closely spaced micron-scale spheres undergoing Brownian motion was measured as a function of their separation. Each sphere was attached to the distal end of a different atomic force microscopy cantilever, placing each sphere in a stiff one-dimensional potential (0.08 Nm-1) with a high frequency of thermal oscillations (resonance at 4 kHz). As a result, the sphere's inertial and restoring forces were significant when compared to the force due to viscous drag. We explored interparticle gap regions where there was overlap between the two Stokes layers surrounding each sphere. Our experimental measurements are the first of their kind in this parameter regime. The high frequency of oscillation of the spheres means that an analysis of the fluid dynamics would include the effects of fluid inertia, as described by the unsteady Stokes equation. However, we find that, for interparticle separations less than twice the thickness of the wake of the unsteady viscous boundary layer (the Stokes layer), the hydrodynamic interaction between the Brownian particles is well-approximated by analytical expressions that neglect the inertia of the fluid. This is because elevated frictional forces at narrow gaps dominate fluid inertial effects. The significance is that interparticle collisions and concentrated suspensions at this condition can be modeled without the need to incorporate fluid inertia. We suggest a way to predict when fluid inertial effects can be ignored by including the gap-width dependence into the frequency number. We also show that low frequency number analysis can be used to determine the microrheology of mixtures at interfaces.Show more - Nanomechanical motion of Escherichia coli adhered to a surfaceLissandrello, C.; Inci, F.; Francom, M.; Paul, Mark R.; Demirci, U.; Ekinci, K. L. (American Institute of Physics, 2014-09-16)
Show more Nanomechanical motion of bacteria adhered to a chemically functionalized silicon surface is studied by means of a microcantilever. A non-specific binding agent is used to attach Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the surface of a silicon microcantilever. The microcantilever is kept in a liquid medium, and its nanomechanical fluctuations are monitored using an optical displacement transducer. The motion of the bacteria couples efficiently to the microcantilever well below its resonance frequency, causing a measurable increase in the microcantilever fluctuations. In the time domain, the fluctuations exhibit large-amplitude low-frequency oscillations. In corresponding frequency-domain measurements, it is observed that the mechanical energy is focused at low frequencies with a 1/fα-type power law. A basic physical model is used for explaining the observed spectral distribution of the mechanical energy. These results lay the groundwork for understanding the motion of microorganisms adhered to surfaces and for developing micromechanical sensors for bacteria.Show more - Bioconvection in spatially extended domainsKarimi, A.; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2013-05-22)
Show more We numerically explore gyrotactic bioconvection in large spatially extended domains of finite depth using parameter values from available experiments with the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas nivalis. We numerically integrate the three-dimensional, time-dependent continuum model of Pedley using a high-order, parallel, spectral-element approach. We explore the long-time nonlinear patterns and dynamics found for layers with an aspect ratio of 10 over a range of Rayleigh numbers. Our results yield the pattern wavelength and pattern dynamics which we compare with available theory and experimental measurement. There is good agreement for the pattern wavelength at short times between numerics, experiment, and a linear stability analysis. At long times we find that the general sequence of patterns given by the nonlinear evolution of the governing equations correspond qualitatively to what has been described experimentally. However, at long times the patterns in numerics grow to larger wavelengths, in contrast to what is observed in experiment where the wavelength is found to decrease with time. © 2013 American Physical Society.Show more - Mean flow and spiral defect chaos in Rayleigh-Benard convectionChiam, K. H.; Paul, Mark R.; Cross, M. C.; Greenside, H. S. (American Physical Society, 2003-05-14)
Show more We describe a numerical procedure to construct a modified velocity field that does not have any mean flow. Using this procedure, we present two results. First, we show that, in the absence of the mean flow, spiral defect chaos collapses to a stationary pattern comprising textures of stripes with angular bends. The quenched patterns are characterized by mean wave numbers that approach those uniquely selected by focus-type singularities, which, in the absence of the mean flow, lie at the zigzag instability boundary. The quenched patterns also have larger correlation lengths and are comprised of rolls with less curvature. Secondly, we describe how the mean flow can contribute to the commonly observed phenomenon of rolls terminating perpendicularly into lateral walls. We show that, in the absence of the mean flow, rolls begin to terminate into lateral walls at an oblique angle. This obliqueness increases with the Rayleigh number.Show more - Exploring spiral defect chaos in generalized Swift-Hohenberg models with mean flowKarimi, A.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Paul, Mark R. (American Physical Society, 2011-10-28)
Show more We explore the phenomenon of spiral defect chaos in two types of generalized Swift-Hohenberg model equations that include the effects of long-range drift velocity or mean flow. We use spatially extended domains and integrate the equations for very long times to study the pattern dynamics as the magnitude of the mean flow is varied. The magnitude of the mean flow is adjusted via a real and continuous parameter that accounts for the fluid boundary conditions on the horizontal surfaces in a convecting layer. For weak values of the mean flow, we find that the patterns exhibit a slow coarsening to a state dominated by large and very slowly moving target defects. For strong enough mean flow, we identify the existence of spatiotemporal chaos, which is indicated by a positive leading-order Lyapunov exponent. We compare the spatial features of the mean flow field with that of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and quantify their differences in the neighborhood of spiral defects. © 2011 American Physical Society.Show more - The relaxation of two-dimensional rolls in Rayleigh-Benard convectionPaul, Mark R.; Catton, I. (American Institute of Physics, 2004-05-01)
Show more Large aspect ratio, two-dimensional, periodic convection layers containing a Boussinesq fluid of finite Prandtl number bounded by rigid or free horizontal surfaces are investigated numerically. The fluid equations are solved using both a standard pseudospectral and a Fourier integral method for the time evolution of finite initial perturbations, both random thermal perturbations and localized roll disturbances, into a final equilibrium state. The suggestion that a Fourier integral solution method is required to yield roll relaxation, the two-dimensional process increasing the convection wavelength to values larger than critical, is investigated. Roll relaxation is found for both free-slip and no-slip surfaces using either solution method as long as the initial state is chosen to be of the form of a localized roll disturbance. A wide variety of simulations are performed and roll relaxation is found to be independent of the periodic domain length, weakly dependent on the Rayleigh number and dependent upon the magnitude of the initial localized roll disturbances.Show more - Stochastic dynamics of nanoscale mechanical oscillators immersed in a viscous fluidPaul, Mark R.; Cross, M. C. (American Physical Society, 2004-06-09)
Show more The stochastic response of nanoscale oscillators of arbitrary geometry immersed in a viscous fluid is studied. Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, it is shown that deterministic calculations of the governing fluid and solid equations can be used in a straightforward manner to directly calculate the stochastic response that would be measured in experiment. We use this approach to investigate the fluid coupled motion of single and multiple cantilevers with experimentally motivated geometries.Show more - The stochastic dynamics of micron and nanoscale elastic cantilevers in fluid: fluctuations from dissipationPaul, Mark R.; Clark, M. T.; Cross, M. C. (IOP Publishing, 2006-08-21)
Show more The stochastic dynamics of micron and nanoscale cantilevers immersed in a viscous fluid are quantified. Analytical results are presented for long slender cantilevers driven by Brownian noise. The spectral density of the noise force is not assumed to be white and the frequency dependence of the noise force is determined from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The analytical results are shown to be useful for the micron scale cantilevers that are commonly used in atomic force microscopy. A general thermodynamic approach is developed that is valid for cantilevers of arbitrary geometry as well as for arrays of multiple cantilevers whose stochastic motion is coupled through the fluid. It is shown that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem permits the calculation of stochastic quantities via straightforward deterministic methods. The thermodynamic approach is used with deterministic finite element numerical simulations to quantify the auto-correlation and noise spectrum of cantilever fluctuations for a single micron scale cantilever and the cross-correlations and noise spectra of fluctuations for an array of two experimentally motivated nanoscale cantilevers as a function of cantilever separation. The results are used to quantify the noise reduction possible using correlated measurements with two closely spaced nanoscale cantilevers. © IOP Publishing Ltd.Show more - Extensive chaos in Rayleigh-Benard convectionPaul, Mark R.; Einarsson, M. I.; Fischer, P. F.; Cross, M. C. (American Physical Society, 2007-04-26)
Show more Using large-scale numerical calculations we explore spatiotemporal chaos in Rayleigh-Bénard convection for experimentally relevant conditions. We calculate the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and the Lyapunov dimension describing the chaotic dynamics of the convective fluid layer at constant thermal driving over a range of finite system sizes. Our results reveal that the dynamics of fluid convection is truly chaotic for experimental conditions as illustrated by a positive leading-order Lyapunov exponent. We also find the chaos to be extensive over the range of finite-sized systems investigated as indicated by a linear scaling between the Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic attractor and the system size. © 2007 The American Physical Society.Show more - Traveling waves in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection: Analysis of modes and mean flowScheel, J. D.; Paul, Mark R.; Cross, M. C.; Fischer, P. F. (American Physical Society, 2003-12-31)
Show more Numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations with rotation for realistic no-slip boundary conditions and a finite annular domain are presented. These simulations reproduce traveling waves observed experimentally. Traveling waves are studied near threshold by using the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE): a mode analysis enables the CGLE coefficients to be determined. The CGLE coefficients are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. Mean flows are also computed and found to be more significant as the Prandtl number decreases (from sigma=6.4 to sigma=1). In addition, the mean flow around the outer radius of the annulus appears to be correlated with the mean flow around the inner radius.Show more