Numerical evaluation and analysis of the occurrence of earth fissures in faulted sedimentary basins
This dissertation describes the occurrence of pumping-induced earth fissures associated with quaternary faulting using numerical simulations. The Eglington Fault located in Las Vegas valley has been selected as the prototype fault described herein. The finite-element software program ABAQUS is used for the numerical simulations.
The Eglington fault area is chosen because it represents one of the best examples displaying the complex relationship between fissuring, faulting and pumping-induced stress. This fault is known to influence both the vertical and horizontal deformation patterns through the accumulation of stress in its vicinity. The result is that fissures are observed on both sides of the fault and in close proximity to the fault plane. In addition to the complex fault-fissure connection, a thick caliche-rich vadose zone with weak mechanical strength allows for the initiation and propagation of fissures.
The numerical analysis a) investigates the geometrical and hydromechanical features of the zone of influence surrounding the Eglington Fault; b) identifies the zones of accumulated stress on the surface and at depth that can lead to fissuring; and c) simulates the onset and propagation of tensile-induced fissures.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of this fault indicate that a 100-meter wide fault-zone composed by sand-like material best reproduces the conditions of stress that may lead to fissuring in the vicinity of the fault. Additionally, two-dimensional models reveal that two main mechanisms promote the accumulation of stress in the vicinity of the fault zone: one is the counterclockwise rotation of the unsaturated portion of the fault zone; the other is the differential compaction caused by the difference in the accumulated thickness of compressible layers. Tensile stress is concentrated on the surface in the hanging wall, but maximum shear stress zones are simulated to occur on both sides of the fault at the contact between the saturated aquifer and the vadose zone. A final analysis of the initiation and propagation of tensile-induced fissures demonstrates that fissures commence and propagate only within the vadose zone, and that the propagation path is influenced by the mechanical properties of the medium and the location of the main load, which in this case is pumping.