Impacts of process-induced porosity on material properties of copper made by binder jetting additive manufacturing
Binder Jetting (BJ) is an efficient, economical, and scalable Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology that can be used in fabricating parts made of reflective and conductivematerials like copper, which have applications in advanced thermal and electrical components. The primary challenge of BJ is in producing fully dense, homogeneous partswithout infiltration. To this end, copper parts of porosities ranging from2.7% to 16.4%were fabricated via BJ, by varying powder morphology, post-process sintering, and Hot Isostatic Pressing conditions. The aim of this study is to characterize and quantify the effects of porosity on the material properties of Binder Jet pure copper parts. Copper parts with the lowest porosity of 2.7% demonstrated a tensile strength of 176 MPa (80.2% of wrought strength), a thermal conductivity of 327.9 W/m·K (84.5% that ofwrought copper), and an electrical conductivity of 5.6 × 107 S/m (96.6% IACS). The porosity-property relationship in these parts was compared against theoretical and empiricalmodels in the literature for similar structures. These studies contribute towards developing a scientific understanding of the process-property-performance relationship in BJ of copper and other printed metals, which can help in tailoring materials and processing conditions to achieve desired properties.