Heavy Tails and Anomalous Diffusion in Human Online Dynamics
In this dissertation, I extend the analysis of human dynamics to human movements in online activities. My work starts with a discussion of the human information foraging process based on three large collections of empirical search click-through logs collected in different time periods. With the analogy of viewing the click-through on search engine result pages as a random walk, a variety of quantities like the distributions of step length and waiting time as well as mean-squared displacements, correlations and entropies are discussed. Notable differences between the different logs reveal an increased efficiency of the search engines, which is found to be related to the vanishing of the heavy-tailed characteristics of step lengths in newer logs as well as the switch from superdiffusion to normal diffusion in the diffusive processes of the random walks. In the language of foraging, the newer logs indicate that online searches overwhelmingly yield local searches, whereas for the older logs the foraging processes are a combination of local searches and relocation phases that are power-law distributed. The investigation highlights the presence of intermittent search processes in online searches, where phases of local explorations are separated by power-law distributed relocation jumps. In the second part of this dissertation I focus on an in-depth analysis of online gambling behaviors. For this analysis the collected empirical gambling logs reveal the wide existence of heavy-tailed statistics in various quantities in different online gambling games. For example, when players are allowed to choose arbitrary bet values, the bet values present log-normal distributions, meanwhile if they are restricted to use items as wagers, the distribution becomes truncated power laws. Under the analogy of viewing the net change of income of each player as a random walk, the mean-squared displacement and first-passage time distribution of these net income random walks both exhibit anomalous diffusion. In particular, in an online lottery game the mean-squared displacement presents a crossover from a superdiffusive to a normal diffusive regime, which is reproduced using simulations and explained analytically. This investigation also reveals the scaling characteristics and probability reweighting in risk attitude of online gamblers, which may help to interpret behaviors in economic systems. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through grants DMR-1205309 and DMR-1606814.