HPLC-DAD Fingerprints Combined With Multivariate Analysis of Epimedii Folium From Major Producing Areas in Eastern Asia: Effect of Geographical Origin and Species


The growth location and plant variety may influence the active components and biological activities of plants used in phytomedicine. In this study, nine sets of different Epimedii Folium, from different representative cultivation locations and Epimedium species, were collected for comparison, using HPLC-DAD combined with multivariate analysis. The objective was to investigate the influence of geographical origin and Epimedium species on the quality of Epimedii Folium, and provide applicable guidance for cultivation and quality control of Epimedii Folium. Several Epimedium spp. sets were used to establish the HPLC-DAD fingerprints and 91 peaks (compounds) were selected for the multivariate analysis. Major compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD combined with principal component analysis (PCA). HPLC quantitative analysis of known bioactive compounds was performed. Application of PCA to HPLC data showed that Epimedium samples sharing the same geographical origin or species clustered together, indicating that both species and geographical origin have impacts on the quality of Epimedii Folium. The major bioactive flavonoid compounds, epimedin C, icariin and baohuoside I, were identified and quantified. The concentration of bioactive compounds was significantly influenced both by species and geographical origin. E. sagittatum from Sichuan showed the highest content of bioactive compounds. The results showed that both Epimedium species and geographical origin have strong impact into quality of Epimedii Folium. HPLC data combined with multivariate analysis is a suitable approach to inform the selection of cultivation areas and choose Epimedium spp. most suitable for different geographical areas, resulting in improved quality of Epimedii Folium.

Epimedium sp, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), principal component analysis (PCA), epimedin C, icariin, baohuoside I