STM Study of 2D Metal Chalcogenides and Heterostructures

dc.contributor.authorZhang, Fanen
dc.contributor.committeechairRobinson, Hansen
dc.contributor.committeechairTao, Chenggangen
dc.contributor.committeememberCheng, Shengfengen
dc.contributor.committeememberHeremans, Jean Josephen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysicsen
dc.date.accessioned2022-02-01T09:00:10Zen
dc.date.available2022-02-01T09:00:10Zen
dc.date.issued2022-01-31en
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials have aroused much interest for their unique structural, thermal, optical, and electronic properties and have become a hot topic in condensed matter physics and material science. Many research methods, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical and transport measurements, have been used to investigate these unique properties. Among them, STM stands out as a powerful characterization tool with atomic resolution and is capable of simultaneously revealing both atomic structures and local electronic properties. This dissertation focuses on scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) investigation of 2D metal chalcogenides and heterostructures. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the continuous interface in WS2/MoS2 heterostructures grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. We observed a closed interface between the MoS2 monolayer and the heterobilayer with atomic resolution. Furthermore, our scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed band gaps of the heterobilayer and the MoS2 monolayer agree with previously reported values for MoS2 monolayer and MoS2/WS2 heterobilayer on SiO2 fabricated through the mechanical exfoliation method. The results could deepen our understanding of the growth mechanism, interlayer interactions and electronic structures of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) heterostructures synthesized via CVD. The second part of the dissertation focuses on phase transformation in 2D In2Se3. We observed that 2D In2Se3 layers with thickness ranging from single to ~20 layers stabilized at the beta phase with a superstructure at room temperature. After cooling down to around 180 K, the beta phase converted to a more stable beta' phase that was distinct from previously reported phases in 2D In2Se3. The kinetics of the reversible thermally driven beta-to-beta' phase transformation was investigated by temperature dependent transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, combined with the expected minimum-energy pathways obtained from our first-principles calculations. Furthermore, DFT calculations reveal in-plane ferroelectricity in the beta' phase. STS measurements show that the indirect bandgap of monolayer beta' In2Se3 is 2.50 eV, which is larger than that of the multilayer form with a measured value of 2.05 eV. Our results on the reversible thermally driven phase transformation in 2D In2Se3 will provide insights to tune the functionalities of 2D In2Se3 and other emerging 2D ferroelectric materials and shed light on their numerous potential applications like non-volatile memory devices. The third part of the dissertation focuses on domain boundaries in 2D ferroelectric In2Se3. The atomic structure of domain boundaries in two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric beta' In2Se3 is visualized with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) combined with DFT calculations. A double-barrier energy potential across the 60° tail to tail domain boundaries in monolayer beta' In2Se3 is also revealed. The results will deepen our understanding of domain boundaries in 2D ferroelectric materials and stimulate innovative applications of these materials.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralTwo-dimensional (2D) materials are materials consisting of a single layer or a few layers of atoms. They exhibit unique and interesting properties distinct from their bulk counterparts. Over the past decade, much effort has been devoted to a large family of 2D materials — 2D metal chalcogenides that exhibit fascinating structural and electronic properties. These 2D metal chalcogenides can also be stacked together to form various heterostructures. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool to study these materials with atomic resolution and is capable of simultaneously revealing both atomic structures and local electronic properties. It can also be used to manipulate nanometer-scale structures on the material surface. In this dissertation, we use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) to investigate 2D metal chalcogenides and heterostructures. The first part of the dissertation focuses on WS2/MoS2 heterostructures grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. We observed a closed interface between the MoS2 monolayer and the heterobilayer with atomic resolution. Furthermore, our scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed band gaps of the heterobilayer and the MoS2 monolayer. The results could deepen our understanding of the growth mechanism, interlayer interactions and electronic structures of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) heterostructures synthesized via CVD. The second part of the dissertation focuses on phase transformation in 2D In2Se3. We observed that 2D In2Se3 layers transform from beta phase to a more stable beta' phase when the sample is cooled down from room temperature to 77 K. This thermally driven beta-to-beta' phase transformation was found to be reversible by temperature dependent transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, corroborated with the expected minimum-energy pathways obtained from our first-principles calculations. Furthermore, DFT calculations reveal in-plane ferroelectricity in the beta' phase. Our results on the reversible thermally driven phase transformation in 2D In2Se3 will provide insights to tune the functionalities of 2D In2Se3 and other emerging 2D ferroelectric materials. The third part of the dissertation focuses on domain boundaries in 2D ferroelectric In2Se3. The atomic structure of domain boundaries in 2D ferroelectric beta' In2Se3 is visualized by using STM/S combined with DFT calculations. A double-barrier energy potential across the 60° tail to tail domain boundaries in monolayer beta' In2Se3 is also revealed. The results will deepen our understanding of domain boundaries in 2D ferroelectric materials and stimulate innovative applications of these materials.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:33667en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/108054en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subject2D materialsen
dc.subjectScanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)en
dc.subjectTransition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMD)en
dc.subjectFerroelectricityen
dc.titleSTM Study of 2D Metal Chalcogenides and Heterostructuresen
dc.typeDissertationen
thesis.degree.disciplinePhysicsen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
Files
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Name:
Zhang_F_D_2022.pdf
Size:
49.78 MB
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Name:
Zhang_F_D_2022_support_3.pdf
Size:
191.98 KB
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Description:
Supporting documents
Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Name:
Zhang_F_D_2022_support_1.pdf
Size:
190.77 KB
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Description:
Supporting documents
Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Name:
Zhang_F_D_2022_support_4.pdf
Size:
196.77 KB
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Description:
Supporting documents