Blending career education into the middle school instructional program: a model framework for teacher in-service programs
This study reported on the development and validation of a model framework to prepare in-service teachers to blend career education into on-going middle school instructional programs.
Three research procedures were undertaken in the development of the model: review of the literature, from which a draft model was constructed; formative evaluation of the draft model; and revision of the draft model on the basis of the formative evaluation data.
The literature research brought together developmental philosophy, career development theory, and teaching/learning strategies, and focused them on the career development of middle school youth and teachers in classroom settings. Thereby, a draft model was provided to help educators to identify and give priority to concepts in the body of knowledge unique to their subject matter area, establish behavioral objectives; define and prescribe learning experiences for self and students; prepare materials; obtain equipment and supplies; create the teaching aids and climate essential to total person development in a total career education sensitive curriculum.
Strong interest was manifested in having industrial/business and government/work knowledge tours included in in-service practices.
The application of teacher-centered, class-centered and self-directed learning structures were conceptualized; the salient character of each style and its value as a career education instructional strategy was gaining appropriate recognition.
Organizational structures and processes appear to be contingent upon the nature of the people in the organization and encompassed varying dimensions of elements and linkages in organizational support structures and bureaucratic, collaborative and coordinative leadership styles.
A preference exists for research and career education which provide mechanics for producing results rather than in comparison to presentations allowing for generalization to be drawn from technical reports and scholarly narratives.
A strong need is felt for structures which provide a more basic group of career education in-service elements, instructional strategies and program development approaches.
The in-service model presented by the investigator for validation represented a significant contribution to in-service at all levels, managerial tools and career education practices, principles and strategies.
Finally, and perhaps the most rewarding of the obtrusive indices was the opportunity afforded the investigator to work with the types of professionals and school systems one could expect to work with as a staff development consultant or a career education specialist.