Numerical simulations of vortices near free and solid surfaces
The interaction of vortices passing near free and solid surfaces has been examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A computer code was developed which solves the unsteady, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. A critical element of the numerical scheme is the efficient solution of Poisson's equation. A state of the art solver based on multigrid techniques was developed which gives excellent convergence rates. The result is a tool capable of modeling complex three-dimensional flows in a variety of configurations.
Three different flow fields have been examined in order to determine some of the complex interactions involved between a vortex and a surface. The first concerns the two-dimensional interaction between a boundary layer and a convecting vortex. The size and height above the wall of the vortex are the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer thickness. A strong primary vortex creates a secondary vortex which causes the rebound of the primary, a response observed in many previous studies. However, weaker vortices as well do not follow the inviscid trajectory despite the absence of a secondary vortex. Rather than creating vorticity at the wall, a weaker vortex mainly redistributes the vorticity of the boundary layer. The redistributed vorticity alters the path of the vortex in ways not seen for vortex/wall interactions.