The Impact of Health Literacy Status on the Comparative Validity and Sensitivity of an Interactive Multimedia Beverage Intake Questionnaire
Self-reported dietary assessment methods can be challenging to validate, and reporting errors for those with lower health literacy (HL) may be augmented. Interactive multimedia (IMM) based questionnaires could help overcome these limitations. The objectives of this investigation are to assess the comparative validity and sensitivity to change of an IMM beverage intake questionnaire (IMM-BEVQ) as compared to dietary recalls and determine the impact of HL. Adults completed three 24-h dietary recalls and the IMM-BEVQ at baseline and after a six-month intervention targeting either sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or physical activity. Correlations and paired-samples t-tests are presented. For validity (n = 273), intake of SSB (mean difference = 10.6 fl oz) and total beverage consumption (mean difference = 16.0 fl oz) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.001) at baseline between the IMM-BEVQ and dietary recalls for all participants. However, the differences in intake were generally greater in low HL participants than in adequate HL participants. For sensitivity (n = 162), change in SSB intake (mean difference = 7.2 fl oz) was significantly different (p ≤ 0.01) between pre-/post-IMM-BEVQ and pre-/post-dietary recalls, but not total beverage intake (mean difference = 7.6 fl oz) for all participants. Changes in SSB and total beverage intake were not significantly different for those with adequate HL. The IMM-BEVQ is a valid dietary assessment tool that is as responsive to detecting changes in beverage intake as dietary recalls. However, adults with lower HL may need additional guidance when completing the IMM-BEVQ.