The Ottoman külltye between the 14th and 17th centuries: its urban setting and spatial composition
In order to serve the Muslim community, the Ottomans built nuclei which included educational and social services around the mosque. A nucleus of these was called a "külltye". Facilities in külltyes can be categorized under four main areas: religious, educational, social, and private. This research project attempted to examine the Ottoman külltye from an urban design point of view. It explored the külltye through two main questions: firstly. what was the relationship between the külltye and its surroundings. and secondly. how the kkülltye was designed. In order to answer these two questions, the külltye was studied at five scales: the state, the city, the immediate surroundings, the külltye itself, and flnal1y the individual open spaces in the külltye. This research work is basically a morphological study; however, when possible and appropriate the meaning behind the form is addressed.
At the state scale it was found that a good level of sensitivity was utilized when planning for new külltyes. Larger cities had a larger number of külltyes and more complex programs for these külltyes. külltyes in small cities were programmed so as to serve the small community adequately without being oversized. külltyes in cities had more educational facilities while külltyes in the country were more oriented towards serving travelers. Within the city itself. central areas housed larger külltyes; while residential neighborhoods had smaller külltyes since they were intended to serve only that particular neighborhood.
The number and kind of facilities were affected by the particular period during which külltyes were built. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries külltyes were large and housed a large variety of services. That period was a period of growth and prosperity. Later centuries exhibited a different trend where külltyes became smaller and included simpler programs. Reasons for this new trend could be the existence of enough services and the economic deterioration of the state.