Consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction of upscale restaurant dining: a two dimensional approach

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Virginia Tech


Dining out is one of the most popular leisure activities in developed countries. A review of the studies on consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction (CS/D) in restaurant dining indicates that the majority of restaurant management literature deals with the product/service dimension of restaurant dining and that the leisure dimension of restaurant dining has not been explored. This study was approached with a desire to combine the knowledge from leisure, tourism, marketing, and service management in order to add to the body of knowledge in restaurant management.

An analysis of an empirical test of the satisfaction disconfirmation model in an upscale restaurant was conducted. The emphasis was on the impact of perceived product/service and leisure disconfirmations on CS/D with upscale restaurant dining. Initially, thirteen product/service attributes were identified through in-depth literature review and consequently nine leisure attributes were adapted from Beard and Ragheb's leisure motivation scale (1983).

A self-administered questionnaire was given to 443 customers in an upscale restaurant and 217 questionnaires were returned by mail. It was found that respondents had significantly higher perceived product/service disconfirmation than perceived leisure disconfirmation.

Five factors were identified by factor analysis of the 22 attributes. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that all the 13 product/service attributes which separated into three factors--food and beverage (F&B), price/quantity, and physical/service--had significant impacts on consumer satisfaction. The nine leisure attributes were identified as two factors--factor leisure one and factor leisure two. Factor leisure one was found to have no significant impact on CS/D. Factor leisure two which includes discover new things, avoid the hustle & bustle of daily activities, and interact with others, was found to relate significantly to consumer satisfaction.

Among the four significant factors, F&B had the highest effect on consumer satisfaction with upscale restaurant dining followed by price/quantity. Compared with the physical/service factor, factor leisure two had a slightly higher effect on consumer satisfaction for upscale restaurant dining.