Graphic Communications Teachers' Concerns and Beliefs Regarding Their Online Teaching of Graphic Communications Hands-On Classes
Previous literature has exposed the impact of concerns and beliefs on a teacher's decision to adopt online teaching methods, and in particular for Graphic Communications teachers, the extent to which their concerns and beliefs influence whether or not they decide to teach online. The potential problem that may exist is that of Graphic Communications teachers' concerns and beliefs are playing a role in impeding their transitioning to teaching in the online environment. The purpose of this study was to examine how teacher concerns and beliefs might be affecting a Graphic Communications teacher's adoption of online teaching. Although there are a multitude of factors that may inhibit Graphic Communications teachers from teaching online, this study sought to document the extent to which teacher concerns and beliefs toward online teaching impact their decision to adopt these practices.
This study included a purposeful sample of 79 Graphic Communications educators across the United States and Canada. Data collected from the Graphic Communications Teachers Beliefs Towards Teaching Online (GCTBTTO) survey were analyzed using the Stages of Concern scoring device, simple means, and sample correlation coefficients to examine participant concerns and beliefs towards online teaching and the relationship between their concerns and beliefs. A theme analysis of open-ended responses about teaching online provided further assessment of participant beliefs and concerns towards the innovation.
Findings from this study revealed Graphic Communications teachers who had taught online had higher levels of external concerns and stronger beliefs towards teaching online. Graphic Communications teachers who had not taught online had higher levels of internal concerns and average beliefs towards teaching online. T-tests revealed the difference in concerns between the sub-groups of teachers was significant across all stages except Management, where online and non-online teachers had similar management concerns about online teaching. For online teachers, task value and cost beliefs were found to have a moderately strong negative correlation to concerns in the Awareness stage, with no significant relationship between expectancy/ability beliefs and any stages of concern. For teachers not teaching online, task value and cost beliefs had a strong positive correlation with their Collaboration concerns, and expectancy/ability beliefs were strongly positively related to their Refocusing concerns. These findings also revealed that most Graphic Communications teachers do not believe hands-on courses which require manipulation of machinery can be taught online, although online teachers are teaching these types of classes with hybrid methods of instruction. The findings from this study provide implications for change facilitators and their consideration of faculty concerns and beliefs. The recommendations for this study suggest ways in which researchers, educators, and change facilitators can address concerns and beliefs in order to develop new innovative teaching methods for hands-on classes.