State estimation of unbalanced power systems

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


A new network model has been developed which allows the calculation of state estimates for unbalanced electric power systems. This model incorporates the effects of mutually coupled conductors, earth return paths, unbalanced device configurations, and multiple voltage references.

Development of the new model appeals to multiport network theory and graph theoretic principles. Model equations are employed directly to obtain least squares estimators in the phase-voltage reference frame.

The concept of power system segments is introduced and segment multiport equations are developed. The concept of power system modified primitive networks is introduced and system multiport equations are developed.

Segment and system multiport equations are used to obtain a state estimator formulation in variables suitable for practical systems analysis.