Educational intervention and its relationship to achievement and self-concept of primary students in the Richmond public schools

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


The study was designed to investigate the intervention program, PEP-UP, in the Richmond Public Schools in Richmond, Virginia, and to determine if significant differences occurred in the academic achievement and self-concept of the program participants.

Data for the study were obtained from SRA Achievement Test scores of the subjects participating in the study and from questionnaires given the participants. The subjects were 15 classes of PEP-UP students who were retained in the second grade on the basis of test scores, and 15 classes of control students composing the lower level reading groups of the third grade. Permission was granted by the Superintendent of Schools to utilize the test scores from school records and to administer the questionnaires to the subjects. The data were analyzed by use of the analysis of covariance with the signicance level set at .05.

Major findings were: (1) There was a significant difference in the reading achievement after seven months of instruction between the experimental and control groups; (2) the mathematics achievement scores were similar for both groups and no significant differences were found; (3) the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) did not indicate a significant difference between the groups, even though a slight increase in scores was evident for the PEP-UP students; (4) a significant difference in teachers' ratings did occur between the experimental and control groups.