Direct measurement of skin friction in complex supersonic flows

dc.contributor.authorNovean, Michael George Bernarden
dc.contributor.committeechairSchetz, Joseph A.en
dc.contributor.committeememberGrossman, Bernarden
dc.contributor.committeememberWalters, Robert W.en
dc.contributor.committeememberSimpson, Rogeren
dc.contributor.committeememberBowersox, Rodney D. W.en
dc.contributor.departmentAerospace Engineeringen
dc.description.abstractAn instrument for the direct measurement of skin friction in complex supersonic and hypersonic flows was developed. The flows were complex because they were of very short duration, with high temperature and shocks and often injection, mixing, and combustion. A wall-mounted, miniature cantilevered beam device measured the small tangential shear force on the non-intrusive floating element. Semiconductor strain gages mounted at the beam’s base measure the small strains that are generated. By modifying the geometry of the sensing unit, this design can be adapted for a variety of test flows. The use of engineering plastics and short beam length provide high frequency response and make the beam stiff so that the floating head’s deflection due to the shear is negligible, allowing for a non-nulling design. Measurements were made in scramjet models at the NASA Ames 16-inch Shock Tunnel and the General Applied Science Laboratory HYPULSE facility. Test flow conditions were harsh with the facilities simulating Mach 14 enthalpy conditions (320 atm and 10000 R total temperatures) for 0.3-2 milliseconds. The use of engineering plastics reduces heat transfer, so that measurements can be made in these very hot impulsive flows without thermal contamination of the data. Skin friction data in agreement with other correlations and measurements were obtained at both facilities. Mach 2.4 cold flow tests were also performed in the Virginia Tech Supersonic Tunnel. These helped verify the concept and to establish pressure gradient sensitivity in the case of a shock wave impacting directly on the sensing head. Analysis of the measurement uncertainty in the cold supersonic flow tests showed that an uncertainty of approximately 10 percent is achievable. An uncertainty of 15-20% is estimated for the most severe hot cases. An assortment of variations were applied to the gage to extend gage life. The most significant was the replacement of the oil in the sensing gap with a silicon rubber, eliminating service requirements. Tests at all of the facilities confirmed that the rubber-filled gages provided approximately the same level of accuracy as was achieved with the original oil-filled gage design, except when shocks impacted the gage head.en
dc.description.degreePh. D.en
dc.format.extentxiii, 151 leavesen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.relation.isformatofOCLC# 35020407en
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectskin frictionen
dc.subjectsupersonic flowen
dc.subject.lccLD5655.V856 1996.N684en
dc.titleDirect measurement of skin friction in complex supersonic flowsen
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten Engineeringen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen D.en


Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
7.71 MB
Adobe Portable Document Format