Analytical and Numerical Optimal Motion Planning for an Underwater Glider
The use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for oceanic observation and research is becoming more common. Underwater gliders are a specific class of AUV that do not use conventional propulsion. Instead they change their buoyancy and center of mass location to control attitude and trajectory. The vehicles spend most of their time in long, steady glides, so even minor improvements in glide range can be magnified over multiple dives.
This dissertation presents a rigid-body dynamic system for a generic vehicle operating in a moving fluid (ocean current or wind). The model is then reduced to apply to underwater gliders. A reduced-order point-mass model is analyzed for optimal gliding in the presence of a current. Different numerical method solutions are compared while attempting to achieve maximum glide range. The result, although approximate, provides good insight into how the vehicles may be operated more effectively.
At the end of each dive, the gliders must change their buoyancy and pitch to transition to a climb. Improper scheduling of the buoyancy and pitch change may cause the vehicle to stall and lose directional stability. Optimal control theory is applied to the buoyancy and angle of attack scheduling of a point-mass model.
A rigid-body model is analyzed on a singular arc steady glide. An analytical solution for the control required to stay on the arc is calculated. The model is linearized to calculate possible perturbation directions while remaining on the arc. The nonlinear model is then propagated in forward and reverse time with the perturbations and analyzed. Lastly, one of the numerical solutions is analyzed using the singular arc equations for verification. This work received support from the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number N00014-08-1-0012.