Synthesis of Polysaccharide-based Biomaterials for Drug Delivery

dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yangen
dc.contributor.committeechairEdgar, Kevin J.en
dc.contributor.committeememberEsker, Alan R.en
dc.contributor.committeememberRoman, Marenen
dc.contributor.committeememberFrazier, Charles E.en
dc.contributor.departmentForest Resources and Environmental Conservationen
dc.description.abstractSynthetic strategies for polysaccharide-protein conjugates, pH-responsive hydrogels, and amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) polymers were developed. Conjugating a polysaccharide to a protein drug via a covalent bond may improve its medical properties including solubility, stability, immunogenicity, circulation time, and targeting ability. Regioselectivity of conjugation is still challenging. We developed a strategy for regioselective conjugation of amino acid esters to polysaccharides, by employing 6-Br-polysaccharides in SN2 substitution reactions with amino acid esters. This work provides a good starting point for the regioselective conjugation of polysaccharides to proteins. Polysaccharides can also serve as hydrogel drug carriers. Most hydrogels employed in drug delivery work by incorporating the drug physically. We synthesized sustained and pH-responsive hydrogels using oxidized hydroxypropyl cellulose (Ox-HPC)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) crosslinked by imine bond. Phenylalanine as a model amine-containing drug was chemically bonded to the Ox-HPC hydrogel component and was observed to release faster at the pH of a tumor microenvironment. These hydrogels show promise as targeting cancer drug carriers. ASDs are polymeric systems to disperse poorly soluble drugs amorphously and enhance permeation from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) to the bloodstream. We synthesized potentially zwitterionic cellulose derivatives by reductive amination of Ox-HPC with ω-aminoalkanoic acids and obtained products with the degree of substitution (cation and anion) up to 1.6, which is difficult to attain using previous methods. The products showed manipulated amphiphilicity and excellent thermostability, exhibiting potential application in ASDs. We anticipate that these strategies will benefit future polysaccharide chemistry research and permit synthesis of a broad variety of more functional biomedical materials.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralPolysaccharides are long chains of individual sugars ("polymers"). Many natural-sourced polysaccharides are sustainable, biodegradable, and have low toxicity. Polysaccharide-based materials may improve the properties of current drugs, resulting in decreased cost, enhanced absorption efficiency, and continuous and/or targeted delivery. Protein drugs such as human insulin have a significant role in medicine. However, the residence time of a protein drug in the human body is short. To overcome this challenge, we designed a method to link polysaccharides to proteins at controlled reaction sites, and reported herein the first step of this route. The final polysaccharide-protein products will even have the ability to recognize and access target cells, like those of tumors. Tumor tissues are more acidic than normal tissue and can trigger faster release of drug from drug carriers. We developed polysaccharide-based hydrogels, which are gels that bind a great deal of water but won't dissolve in it, as acid-sensitive carriers. In addition, our hydrogels are also injectable, and can spontaneously repair themselves. These properties make our hydrogels promising as cancer targeting drug carriers. Most new drug candidates have poor water solubility and permeation through the gastrointestinal tract to reach the blood stream. Dispersing the insoluble drug into a properly designed polymer network can enhance dissolution, permeation, and absorption. We developed a new family of polymers designed for this purpose using two cheap starting materials. These polymers can interact with the drug, preventing it from forming crystals and simultaneously promoting slow drug release. Overall, we explored ways to modify polysaccharides to create harmless, effective medical materials. We aim to promote science and benefit human health via our research.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectPolysaccharide-protein conjugatesen
dc.subjectZwitterionic polymersen
dc.titleSynthesis of Polysaccharide-based Biomaterials for Drug Deliveryen
dc.typeDissertationen Productsen Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen of Philosophyen


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