Methodology for evaluating the digestibility and metabolizable energy of poultry feedstuffs

dc.contributor.authorBlake, John Paulen
dc.contributor.committeechairPotter, Lawrence M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberHerbein, Joseph H. Jr.en
dc.contributor.committeememberBevan, David R.en
dc.contributor.committeememberWisman, E.L.en
dc.contributor.committeememberCherry, J.A.en
dc.contributor.committeememberWolford, J.H.en
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal Science (Poultry Nutrition)en
dc.description.abstractDetermining the energy values of feed ingredients for poultry is of great concern, especially since production efficiency is associated with profit margins. Therefore, accurate, precise, and reproducible energy values for feed ingredients are of the utmost importance in formulating an economical diet. An important aspect in determining the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of a feed ingredient is the procedure employed in the drying of excreta samples. During sample preparation, substantial grinding losses were incurred amounting to 3.5 to 5.2% of the dried sample weight. Also moisture uptake during sample grinding accounted for a 1.9 to 3.9% increase in sample weight. To properly account for such losses, freshly collected excreta samples should be weighed, oven-dried at 40 C, reweighed, allowed to equilibrate with atmospheric moisture, weighed, ground, reweighed, and stored in air-tight containers for subsequent analyses. From the oven-drying of feed and excreta samples at various temperatures, a linear decrease in sample weight occurred with increasing drying temperatures. When dried at 100 C or less, the energy content of feed and excreta samples remained unchanged, but increased significantly at higher temperatures. The nitrogen composition of feed and excreta samples exhibited a similar trend, but a significant loss of excreta nitrogen (2%) occurred at 100 C. The loss of excreta nitrogen at a temperature of 100 C is of relatively minor consequence in the determination of metabolizable dry matter, but is of major concern in nitrogen balance studies. Extraction of feed and excreta samples with N,N-dimethylformamide and titration with Karl Fischer reagent indicated that significant amounts of water were retained by samples dried at 40, 60, and 80 C. However, at temperatures of 100 C or greater, little water was retained but sample decomposition occurred. A drying temperature of 90 C or the Karl Fischer method may yield a more accurate value for the dry matter of feed or excreta. When seven roosters were subjected to a total collection method for five consecutive days, individual birds were better metabolizers of dry matter and energy than others. By either a voluntary intake method or by a total collection method, values for the nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy of corn were similar. The total collection method proved to be more reliable since it provided the least amount of variation when <u>ad libitum</u> feed intake and total excreta output were measured over a period of several days. In past experiments, adding fats to a test diet at the expense of cerelose in amounts no greater than 20% of the diet to determine the metabolizable energy of the fat has been associated with a high degree of variability. From the force-feeding of fats at levels to 100%, the variation associated with the metabolizable energy value of a fat was greatly reduced. The methodology presented here provided reliable estimates and detected differences between the metabolizable energy of two feed-grade fats in comparison to previous methods.en
dc.description.degreePh. D.en
dc.format.extentx, 152 leavesen
dc.publisherVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
dc.relation.isformatofOCLC# 15994233en
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subject.lccLD5655.V856 1986.B529en
dc.subject.lcshPoultry -- Feed utilization efficiencyen
dc.subject.lcshPoultry -- Feeding and feedsen
dc.titleMethodology for evaluating the digestibility and metabolizable energy of poultry feedstuffsen
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten Science (Poultry Nutrition)en Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen D.en


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