Stakeholders’ Views About the FNV Campaign to Increase the Sales and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Two U.S. Cities


TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



In 2015, the PHA launched the branded FNV (Fruits & Veggies) Campaign in California and Virginia to increase sales and consumption of fruits and vegetables among millennial moms (21-34 years) and Generation Z teens (15-20 years). This study explored diverse stakeholders’ views and expectations about the FNV Campaign’s design, implementation and effectiveness in the test locations—Fresno in the Central Valley region of California and the Hampton Roads region of southeastern Virginia (May 2015 to September 2016); and their views about future expansion, scaling up and sustainability.

Methods: We used a purposive sampling strategy to recruit and interview diverse stakeholders (n=22) (i.e., government, business, trade associations, public-interest non-governmental organizations, private foundations, and academic institutions) by phone (n=18) or in-person (n=4) between July and October 2016. We used a 15-item interview guide to explore stakeholders’ views and expectations about eight constructs (i.e., design, reach, adoption, effectiveness, impact, expansion, scaling up and sustainability) for the FNV Campaign. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative research principles and NVivo 11 software. The written transcripts were coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The results were summarized as perceived opportunities and challenges for the eight constructs.

Results: Stakeholders represented national, state or local government agencies (36.4%; n=8), private-sector businesses (18.2%; n=4), industry trade associations (9.1%; n=2), public-interest organizations (9.1%; n=2), academic researchers (13.6%; n=3) and private foundations (13.6%; n=3). Design opportunities included breadth of creative marketing strategies including celebrities. Challenges were inadequate formative research conducted and confusion about the FNV brand and message content. Reach opportunities were social media and in-store fruit and vegetable retail potential, whereas challenges were underutilization of food-retail partnerships and desire for objective and rigorous evaluation data. Adoption opportunities were diverse sponsorship, assistance of local partners, and community excitement generated by FNV association. Adoption challenges were lack of a clear long-term communication plan between PHA and partners, limited flexibility for local adaptation, and lack of evidence to show that FNV brand or messages had increased fruit and vegetable sales or intake. Effectiveness and impact opportunities were some positive sales data from Virginia and public relations impressions. Challenges were a lack of targeted outcomes, limited transparency to share sales data and Campaign results with funders, and one-year pilot was inadequate to show positive effects. Expansion opportunities included potential to expand partnerships with SNAP retailers and untapped community-based supporters. Perceived challenges were that FNV targeted high-income food retailers were SNAP participants did not shop, and more than a campaign is needed to reach low-income consumers. Sustainability opportunities were well-resourced national partners and community-based organizations that could play a central role, and potential for commodity produce groups to support the Campaign. Challenges were sustaining clear communication with partners over time, fundraising, and keeping FNV brand and messages resonating with diverse audiences.

Conclusions: This qualitative evaluation can inform the design and PHA partnership engagement strategy as the FNV campaign expands to other locations to increase fruit and vegetable sales and consumption among ethnically, racially and culturally diverse Americans. We offer four recommendations for evaluating the FNV Campaign’s effectiveness, impact and sustainability in other locations.