The Effects of Two Generative Activities on Learner Comprehension of Part-Whole Meaning of Rational Numbers Using Virtual Manipulatives


TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


The study investigated the effects of two generative learning activities on students’ academic achievement of the part-whole representation of rational numbers while using virtual manipulatives. Third-grade students were divided randomly in two groups to evaluate the effects of two generative learning activities: answering-questions and generating-examples while using two virtual manipulatives related to part-whole representation of rational numbers. The study employed an experimental design with pre- and post-tests. A 2x2 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine any significant interaction between the two groups (answering questions and generating-examples) and between two tests (pre-test and immediate post-test). In addition, a 2x3 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Bonferroni post-hoc analysis were used to determine the effects of the generative strategies on fostering comprehension, and to determine any significant differences between the two groups (answering-questions and generating-examples) and among the three tests (pre-test, immediate post-test, and delayed posttest).

Results showed that an answering-questions strategy had a significantly greater effect than a generating-examples strategy on an immediate comprehension posttest. In addition, no significant interaction was found between the generative strategies on a delayed comprehension tests. However a difference score analysis between the immediate posttest scores and the delayed posttest scores revealed a significant difference between the answering-questions and the generating-examples groups suggesting that students who used generating-examples strategy tended to remember relatively more information than students who used the answering-questions strategy. The findings are discussed in the context of the related literature and directions for future research are suggested.



Generative learning, part-whole meaning of rational numbers, virtual manipulatives