Advances in tropical climatology – a review

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Understanding tropical climatology is essential to comprehending the atmospheric connections between the tropics and extratropical latitudes weather and climate events. In this review paper, we emphasize the advances in key areas of tropical climatology knowledge since the end of the 20th century and offer a summary, assessment, and discussion of previously published literature. Among the key areas analyzed here, we explore the advances in tropical oceanic and atmospheric variability, such as El Niño – Southern Oscillation and the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and how those teleconnection events have helped us to better understand variabilities in tropical monsoons, tropical cyclones, and drought events. We also discuss new concepts incorporated into the study of tropical cyclones, such as rapid intensification, and how those studies are evolving and helping scientists to better prepare and predict hurricanes. Regarding tropical aerosols, we discuss how satellite-based dust detection has improved the comprehension of Saharan dust as a driver of drought in locations far from the dust source region while simultaneously altering tropical cyclone variability. Finally, our review shows that there have been significant advances in tropical hydroclimatic studies in order to better investigate monsoons, flooding, and drought, helping scholars of tropical climatology to better understand its extreme events.