Development and Evaluation of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake
Attention on beverage intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has increased in recent years (1). Energy-containing beverages do not provide the same satiety as solid foods, and intake of solid food is not spontaneously reduced when energy-containing beverages are consumed (2,3). This may contribute to positive energy balance (1). Conversely, a reduction in energy intake occurs by replacing SSB with water and may facilitate weight loss (4,5). A valid, reliable and sensitive assessment tool for quantifying beverage consumption and determining its influence on weight status could help advance research on this topic. Three studies were conducted to develop the BEVQ, a self-administered quantitative beverage intake questionnaire. First study (n=105): the 19-item BEVQ's validity was examined by comparing participant's beverage intake to the "gold standard" of dietary intake assessment, food intake records; reliability was assessed by comparing two BEVQ's, administered two weeks apart. The BEVQ demonstrated acceptable validity (R2=0.53, water g; 0.46, 0.61 total beverage g, kcal; 0.49, 0.59 SSB g, kcal) as well as reliability (all correlations P<0.001) (6). Second study (n=1,596): the BEVQ underwent exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify the potential to reduce items. Three beverage items, which contributed <10% to total beverage intake g, kcal, were eliminated; EFA identified beer and light beer as a combined category. The refinement led to the 15-item BEVQ, which produced a lower readability score of 4.8 and shorter administration time (~2 min) (7). Third study (n=70): the ability of the BEVQ-15 to detect changes in beverage intake was evaluated by increasing participant water and fruit juice consumption and evaluating BEVQ-15 outcomes before and after the feeding period. Increases in water, juice and total beverage (g) were detected during the intervention period (P<0.001) (8). This rapid, valid, reliable and sensitive beverage intake assessment tool may determine the habitual intake of SSB and other beverages, and evaluate the effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions which aim to address national SSB recommendations. Future work is needed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the BEVQ-15 in children, as well as develop cost-effective noninvasive biomarkers that can objectively estimate intake of specific foods/dietary components (9).