Explicitly Correlated Methods for Large Molecular Systems

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Virginia Tech


Wave function based electronic structure methods have became a robust and reliable tool for the prediction and interpretation of the results of chemical experiments. However, they suffer from very steep scaling behavior with respect to an increase in the size of the system as well as very slow convergence of the correlation energy with respect to the basis set size. Thus these methods are limited to small systems of up to a dozen atoms. The first of these issues can be efficiently resolved by exploiting the local nature of electron correlation effects while the second problem is alleviated by the use of explicitly correlated R12/F12 methods. Since R12/F12 methods are central to this work, we start by reviewing their modern formulation.

Next, we present the explicitly correlated second-order Mo ller-Plesset (MP2-F12) method in which all nontrivial post-mean-field steps are formulated with linear computational complexity in system size [Pavov{s}evi'c et al., {em J. Chem. Phys.} {bf 144}, 144109 (2016)]. The two key ideas are the use of pair-natural orbitals for compact representation of wave function amplitudes and the use of domain approximation to impose the block sparsity. This development utilizes the concepts for sparse representation of tensors described in the context of the DLPNO-MP2 method by Neese, Valeev and co-workers [Pinski et al., {em J. Chem. Phys.} {bf 143}, 034108 (2015)]. Novel developments reported here include the use of domains not only for the projected atomic orbitals, but also for the complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) used to approximate the three- and four-electron integrals of the F12 theory, and a simplification of the standard B intermediate of the F12 theory that avoids computation of four-index two-electron integrals that involve two CABS indices. For quasi-1-dimensional systems (n-alkanes) the bigO{N} DLPNO-MP2-F12 method becomes less expensive than the conventional bigO{N^{5}} MP2-F12 for n between 10 and 15, for double- and triple-zeta basis sets; for the largest alkane, C200H402, in def2-TZVP basis the observed computational complexity is Nsim1.6, largely due to the cubic cost of computing the mean-field operators. The method reproduces the canonical MP2-F12 energy with high precision: 99.9% of the canonical correlation energy is recovered with the default truncation parameters. Although its cost is significantly higher than that of DLPNO-MP2 method, the cost increase is compensated by the great reduction of the basis set error due to explicit correlation.

We extend this formalism to develop a linear-scaling coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative inclusion of triples and explicitly correlated geminals [Pavov{s}evi'c et al., {em J. Chem. Phys.} {bf 146}, 174108 (2017)]. Even for conservative truncation levels, the method rapidly reaches near-linear complexity in realistic basis sets; e.g., an effective scaling exponent of 1.49 was obtained for n-alkanes with up to 200 carbon atoms in a def2-TZVP basis set. The robustness of the method is benchmarked against the massively parallel implementation of the conventional explicitly correlated coupled-cluster for a 20-water cluster; the total dissociation energy of the cluster ($sim$186 kcal/mol) is affected by the reduced-scaling approximations by only $sim$0.4 kcal/mol. The reduced-scaling explicitly correlated CCSD(T) method is used to examine the binding energies of several systems in the L7 benchmark data set of noncovalent interactions.

Additionally, we discuss a massively parallel implementation of the Laplace transform perturbative triple correction (T) to the DF-CCSD energy within density fitting framework. This work is closely related to the work by Scuseria and co-workers [Constans et al., {em J. Chem. Phys.} {bf 113}, 10451 (2000)]. The accuracy of quadrature with respect to the number of quadrature points has been investigated on systems of the 18-water cluster, uracil dimer and pentacene dimer. In the case of the 18-water cluster, the mutextEtexth accuracy is achieved with only 3 quadrature points. For the uracil dimer and pentacene dimer, 6 or more quadrature points are required to achieve mutextEtexth accuracy; however, binding energy of $<$1 kcal/mol is obtained with 4 quadrature points. We observe an excellent strong scaling behavior on distributed-memory commodity cluster for the 18-water cluster. Furthermore, the Laplace transform formulation of (T) performs faster than the canonical (T) in the case of studied systems. The efficiency of the method has been furthermore tested on a DNA base-pair, a system with more than one thousand basis functions.

Lastly, we discuss an explicitly correlated formalism for the second-order single-particle Green's function method (GF2-F12) that does not assume the popular diagonal approximation, and describes the energy dependence of the explicitly correlated terms [Pavov{s}evi'c et al., {em J. Chem. Phys.} {bf 147}, 121101 (2017)]. For small and medium organic molecules the basis set errors of ionization potentials of GF2-F12 are radically improved relative to GF2: the performance of GF2-F12/aug-cc-pVDZ is better than that of GF2/aug-cc-pVQZ, at a significantly lower cost.



Electronic Structure, Reduced Scaling, Explicit Correlation, Green's Functions