Endurance Exercise Training Mitigates Diastolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice Independent of Phosphorylation of Ulk1 at S555

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2024-01-03
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MDPI
Abstract

Millions of diabetic patients suffer from cardiovascular complications. One of the earliest signs of diabetic complications in the heart is diastolic dysfunction. Regular exercise is a highly effective preventive/therapeutic intervention against diastolic dysfunction in diabetes, but the underlying mechanism(s) remain poorly understood. Studies have shown that the accumulation of damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria in the myocardium is at the center of this pathology. Here, we employed a mouse model of diabetes to test the hypothesis that endurance exercise training mitigates diastolic dysfunction by promoting cardiac mitophagy (the clearance of mitochondria via autophagy) via S555 phosphorylation of Ulk1. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection in mice led to reduced endurance capacity, impaired diastolic function, increased myocardial oxidative stress, and compromised mitochondrial structure and function, which were all ameliorated by 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, we generated non-phosphorylatable Ulk1 (S555A) mutant mice and showed the requirement of p-Ulk1at S555 for exercise-induced mitophagy in the myocardium. However, diabetic Ulk1 (S555A) mice retained the benefits of exercise intervention. We conclude that endurance exercise training mitigates diabetes-induced diastolic dysfunction independent of Ulk1 phosphorylation at S555.

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Guan, Y.; Zhang, M.; Lacy, C.; Shah, S.; Epstein, F.H.; Yan, Z. Endurance Exercise Training Mitigates Diastolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice Independent of Phosphorylation of Ulk1 at S555. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25, 633.