Statistical Modeling of Simulation Errors and Their Reduction via Response Surface Techniques

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Virginia Tech


Errors of computational simulations in design of a high-speed civil transport (HSCT) are investigated. First, discretization error from a supersonic panel code, WINGDES, is considered. Second, convergence error from a structural optimization procedure using GENESIS is considered along with the Rosenbrock test problem.

A grid converge study is performed to estimate the order of the discretization error in the lift coefficient (CL) of the HSCT calculated from WINGDES. A response surface (RS) model using several mesh sizes is applied to reduce the noise magnification problem associated with the Richardson extrapolation. The RS model is shown to be more efficient than Richardson extrapolation via careful use of design of experiments.

A programming error caused inaccurate optimization results for the Rosenbrock test function, while inadequate convergence criteria of the structural optimization produced error in wing structural weight of the HSCT. The Weibull distribution is successfully fit to the optimization errors of both problems. The probabilistic model enables us to estimate average errors without performing very accurate optimization runs that can be expensive, by using differences between two sets of results with different optimization control parameters such as initial design points or convergence criteria.

Optimization results with large errors, outliers, produced inaccurate RS approximations. A robust regression technique, M-estimation implemented by iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS), is used to identify the outliers, which are then repaired by higher fidelity optimizations. The IRLS procedure is applied to the results of the Rosenbrock test problem, and wing structural weight from the structural optimization of the HSCT. A nonsymmetric IRLS (NIRLS), utilizing one-sidedness of optimization errors, is more effective than IRLS in identifying outliers. Detection and repair of the outliers improve accuracy of the RS approximations. Finally, configuration optimizations of the HSCT are performed using the improved wing bending material weight RS models.



Weibull distribution, response surface technique, M-estimation, convergence error, discretization error