Low-Latency Wireless Network Extension for Industrial Internet of Things

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The timely delivery of critical messages in real-time environments is an increasing requirement for industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks. Similar to wired time-sensitive networking (TSN) techniques, which bifurcate traffic flows based on priority, the proposed wireless method aims to ensure that critical traffic arrives rapidly across multiple hops to enable numerous IIoT use cases. IIoT architectures are migrating toward wirelessly connected edges, creating a desire to extend TSN-like functionality to a wireless format. Existing protocols possess inherent challenges to achieving this prioritized low-latency communication, ranging from rigidly scheduled time division transmissions, scalability/jitter of carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA) protocols, and encryption-induced latency. This paper presents a hardware-validated low-latency technique built upon receiver-assigned code division multiple access (RA-CDMA) techniques to implement a secure wireless TSN-like extension suitable for the IIoT. Results from our hardware prototype, constructed on the IntelFPGA Arria 10 platform, show that (sub-)millisecond single-hop latencies can be achieved for each of the available message types, ranging from 12 bits up to 224 bits of payload. By achieving one-way transmission of under 1 ms, a reliable wireless TSN extension with comparable timelines to 802.1Q and/or 5G is achievable and proven in concept through our hardware prototype.




Fletcher, M.; Paulz, E.; Ridge, D.; Michaels, A.J. Low-Latency Wireless Network Extension for Industrial Internet of Things. Sensors 2024, 24, 2113.