Prediction model for the onset of edge-effect delamination at holes in composite laminates
Composite laminates are prone to delamination at free edges, straight edges or at holes, due to the mismatch at interfaces where two adjacent plies have different fiber orientations and/or different material properties. The linear analysis of the mismatch at the edge results in a mathematical singularity. That phenomenon occurs in a boundary layer and has to be treated mathematically and physically as such. In the literature it is called the "Boundary Layer Effect" or simply the "Edge Effect". It is of great importance to recognize and be able to predict delamination locations at edges prone to such events. The goal of this research was to create a model capable of providing such a prediction. In an effort to generalize the model, the more complicated case of a free edge at holes in the composite laminate was chosen rather than the case of a straight free edge.
A sequel of three major efforts was completed: 1) Development of the analysis of the free-edge effect at a hole in a composite laminate, 2) Performance of an extensive experimental program to provide data for the creation of the prediction model, and 3) On the basis of the analysis, establishment of the model, and comparison with the experimental results.
The prediction model consists of two major products of the analysis, the order of the singularity and the strain energy release rate. Both are useful in locating the interface most prone to delaminate and the point along the hole circumference where it initiates.
Two material systems (AS4/3501-6 and AS4/1808) and two stacking sequences [(0/45/0/-45)s)₄] and [ (0/45/90/-45)s)₄]s , quasi-orthotropic and quasi-isotropic respectively, were quasi-statically tested under tension and compression. The specimens were X-rayed after each loading stage in order to locate the initiation of delaminations. The fact that both materials consisted of the same type of fibers, was an excellent opportunity to examine the performance of the matrix and its influence on the process of delamination. Matrix dependent behavior was successfully examined and studied through the experiments and the prediction model. Results showed good correlation and high sensitivity to the type of matrix material involved.