Validating an Icelandic Version of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory

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Virginia Tech

Students' motivation generally declines during the middle school years, a period of time when important foundations for further studies are laid. There is a move in many countries to improve science education, especially science literacy that is inadequate according to international research (Halldorsson, Olafsson, and Bjornsson, 2007, 2013). The subject of this dissertation is the translation and validation of the MUSICSM Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MMAMI; Jones, 2012) from English into Icelandic. The purpose for the translation is to provide Icelandic educators with a tool to assess students' motivation in the science classroom. Motivation in the classroom is a complex issue in which both cognitive and contextual factors are involved. The information gained from the inventory responses could be used to guide the development or modification of the classroom strategies employed. The inventory measures students' perceptions of the five components of the MUSICSM Model of Academic Motivation: eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest and Caring, components that have been found to be influential to student motivation (Jones, 2009). The model is based on a thorough analysis of motivation theories and research. The inventory was developed for middle school students in science classes, although it can easily be modified to fit any subject. Back-translation followed by expert meetings was used to gain semantic equivalence. Participants were 458 middle school students in science classes in five public schools in Iceland. To obtain translation invariance in the first version of the translation, I used an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on one data set, using Principal Axis Factoring with Promax Rotation, to examine the translated items. Subsequently, I implemented a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on a second data set to test for model fit. The results replicated the findings obtained with the original version and confirmed the five-factor structure of the MMAMI. All factor loadings were significant. The reliability analysis, using Cronbach's alpha, also replicated the good and acceptable alpha ratings of the original instrument. These findings provide validity evidence for the scores produced by using the Icelandic version of the MMAMI with middle school Icelandic students in science classes

Instrument translation, instrument validation, student motivation, middle school, science education