Molecular marker analysis of a segregating monoploid potato family
Anther culture experiments were conducted to construct a monoploid family. The donor plants used were hybrids between high leptine producing selections of Solanum chacoense Bitt. and anther culture responsive selections of Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. Several steps of the anther culture process were studied. The results indicated that genotype remains the main factor affecting anther culture response. Growing anther-donor plants in higher greenhouse temperatures (30 degrees C day/20 degrees C night) increased the number of embryos per anther by 40 percent. A heat shock given to anthers in culture for 12h at 35 degrees C was also found to be beneficial resulting in an increase of the anther culture response by 40 percent. However the effect of the high temperature shock resulted in lower regeneration rates. In all experiments a highly significant "date" effect was observed with one or two days differing from the others by showing higher response rates in all hybrids tested. The majority of the regenerated plants was diploid, probably resulting from unreduced gametes. Simple sequence repeat analysis with eight polymorphic primer pairs was used successfully to identify the homozygous diploid plants that were added to the monoploids. In total 34 monoploid plants and 14 homozugous diploids were obtained. The degree of heterozygosity revealed by SSR analysis indicated that the diploid plants originated from unreduced gametes formed by first division restitution (FDR) mechanism. The SSR marker data were used to map the genes with respect to the centromeres by half tetrad analysis. SSR-containing sequences from the public databases, as well as sequences obtained from a genomic library enriched for SSRs, were used to generate 48 primer pairs. Only 12 of them were found to be polymorphic in the monoploid family. Ten primer pairs did not amplify any specific fragment. The monoploid population showed distorted segregation at four of the polymorphic loci, showing overrepresentation of the chacoense alleles in three of them. One of the loci showing distorted segregation (STSTP, amplified by primer pair RV 11+12) is most probably linked to lethal alleles, whereas another one (ST13ST, amplified by primer pair RV 21+22) could be linked to genes affecting anther-culture response. The location of the SSR loci on the potato chromosomes is not known except for one (waxy, primer pair 3+4), but statistical analysis on the segregation data obtained from 70 heterozygous anther-derived diploids showed no linkage between them. The SSR primer pairs developed in this study might be useful in studying genetic relationships among cultivars and accessions in breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used in association with bulked segregant analysis to detect linkage with genes controlling leptine biosynthesis. With all the limitations imposed by the population size and contamination from foreign pollen, a band amplified by primer OPA-16 could differentiate the bulks contrasting for leptine content. It is possible that this band is linked to genes suppressing leptine biosynthesis, since it appears only in the plants that do not synthesize leptines. Further investigation with larger populations is needed to confirm this possibility.