How have media campaigns been used to promote and discourage healthy and unhealthy beverages in the United States? A systematic scoping review to inform future research to reduce sugary beverage health risks

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2022-02-09
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Wiley
Abstract

Sugary beverage consumption is associated with many health risks. This study used a proof-of-concept media campaign typology to examine U.S. beverage campaigns that promoted healthy beverages and encouraged or discouraged sugary beverages. We used a three-step systematic scoping review to identify, organize, analyze, and synthesize evidence. Step 1 used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines to search four electronic databases and gray literature through 2021. Step 2 categorized relevant media campaigns using a media campaign typology. Step 3 examined campaign evaluation outcomes. We identified 280 campaigns organized into six campaign typology categories. The media landscape was dominated by corporate marketing campaigns for branded sugary beverages (65.8%; n = 184) followed by public awareness (9.6%; n = 27), public policy (8.2%; n = 23), social marketing (7.1%; n = 20), corporate social responsibility (5.7%; n = 16), and countermarketing (3.6%; n = 10) campaigns. Evaluations for 20 unique campaigns implemented over 30 years (1992–2021) across 14 states showed reduced sugary beverage or juice and increased water or low-fat milk sales and intake. Positive short-term cognitive and mid–term retail and behavioral changes were reported. There was limited evidence for long-term policy, social norm, and population health outcomes. Future research is needed to use media campaigns in strategic communications to reduce sugary beverage health risks for Americans.

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advertising and marketing, healthy beverage behaviors, sugary beverages, U.S. media campaigns
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