Heterogeneous Sensor Data based Online Quality Assurance for Advanced Manufacturing using Spatiotemporal Modeling

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Virginia Tech

Online quality assurance is crucial for elevating product quality and boosting process productivity in advanced manufacturing. However, the inherent complexity of advanced manufacturing, including nonlinear process dynamics, multiple process attributes, and low signal/noise ratio, poses severe challenges for both maintaining stable process operations and establishing efficacious online quality assurance schemes.

To address these challenges, four different advanced manufacturing processes, namely, fused filament fabrication (FFF), binder jetting, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), and the slicing process in wafer production, are investigated in this dissertation for applications of online quality assurance, with utilization of various sensors, such as thermocouples, infrared temperature sensors, accelerometers, etc. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop innovative integrated methodologies tailored for these individual manufacturing processes but addressing their common challenges to achieve satisfying performance in online quality assurance based on heterogeneous sensor data. Specifically, three new methodologies are created and validated using actual sensor data, namely,

(1) Real-time process monitoring methods using Dirichlet process (DP) mixture model for timely detection of process changes and identification of different process states for FFF and CMP. The proposed methodology is capable of tackling non-Gaussian data from heterogeneous sensors in these advanced manufacturing processes for successful online quality assurance.

(2) Spatial Dirichlet process (SDP) for modeling complex multimodal wafer thickness profiles and exploring their clustering effects. The SDP-based statistical control scheme can effectively detect out-of-control wafers and achieve wafer thickness quality assurance for the slicing process with high accuracy.

(3) Augmented spatiotemporal log Gaussian Cox process (AST-LGCP) quantifying the spatiotemporal evolution of porosity in binder jetting parts, capable of predicting high-risk areas on consecutive layers. This work fills the long-standing research gap of lacking rigorous layer-wise porosity quantification for parts made by additive manufacturing (AM), and provides the basis for facilitating corrective actions for product quality improvements in a prognostic way.

These developed methodologies surmount some common challenges of advanced manufacturing which paralyze traditional methods in online quality assurance, and embody key components for implementing effective online quality assurance with various sensor data. There is a promising potential to extend them to other manufacturing processes in the future.

Recurrent hierarchical Dirichlet process, online process monitoring, spatial Dirichlet process, statistical control scheme, wafer profiles modeling, augmented point pattern, augmented spatiotemporal log Gaussian Cox process, porosity prediction