Ru,Rh,Ru Supramolecular Photocatalysts within Nafion® Membranes: Ion-exchange, Photoelectrolysis and Electron Transfer Processes

dc.contributor.authorNaughton, Elise Micheleen
dc.contributor.committeechairBrewer, Karen J.en
dc.contributor.committeechairMoore, Robert Bowenen
dc.contributor.committeememberTissue, Brian M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberTanko, James M.en
dc.contributor.committeememberDeck, Paul A.en
dc.contributor.departmentChemistryen
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-28T08:01:02Zen
dc.date.available2016-04-28T08:01:02Zen
dc.date.issued2016-04-27en
dc.description.abstractPerfluorosulfonate ionomers, such as Nafion® have been shown to demonstrate a profound affinity for large cationic complexes, and the study of polymer-bound cations may provide insight regarding Nafion® morphology by contrasting molecular size with existing models. The trimetallic complex, [{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2] 5+, is readily absorbed by ion exchange into Na+ -form Nafion® membranes under ambient conditions. The dimensions of three different isomers of the trimetallic complex are estimated to be: 23.6 Å × 13.3 Å × 10.8 Å, 18.9 Å × 18.0 Å × 13.7 Å, and 23.1 Å × 12.0 Å × 11.4 Å, yielding an average molecular volume of 1.2×103 Å3 . At equilibrium, the partition coefficient for the ion-exchange of the trimetallic complex into Nafion® from a DMF solution is 5.7 × 103 . Furthermore, the total cationic charge of the exchanged trimetallic complexes counterbalances 86 ± 2% of the anionic SO3 − sites in Nafion®. The characteristic dimensions of morphological models for the ionic domains in Nafion® are comparable to the molecular dimensions of the large mixedmetal complexes. Surprisingly, SAXS analysis indicates that the complexes absorb into the ionic domains of Nafion® without significantly changing the ionomer morphology. Given the profound affinity for absorption of these large cationic molecules, a more open-channel model for the morphology of perfluorosulfonate ionomers is more reasonable, in agreement with recent experimental findings. In contrast to smaller monometallic complexes, the time- v dependent uptake of the large trimetallic cations is biexponential. This behavior is attributed to a fast initial ion-exchange process on the surface of the membrane, accompanied by a slower, transport-limited ion-exchange for sites in the interior of the ionomer matrix. The development of Nafion®/[{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2] 5+ modified electrodes is also described for both FTO electrodes and materials made from electrospun carbon mats. The [{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2] 5+ complexes behave as photocatalytic hydrogen production catalysts in the Nafion® membrane. Furthermore, a second bulk photoelectrolysis experiment with the Nafion®/[{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2] 5+/FTO electrodes shows an enhancement of catalytic activity compared to the first photoelectrolysis experiment. This enhancement is attributed to halide loss following the first reduction process. Lastly, electrospun carbon nanofiber mats behave as electron donor materials for [{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2] 5+/Nafion® membranes.en
dc.description.degreePh. D.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:7433en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/70865en
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectPhotocatalysisen
dc.subjectphotoelectrolysisen
dc.subjecthydrogen productionen
dc.subjectrutheniumen
dc.subjectrhodiumen
dc.subjectionomeren
dc.subjectNafion®en
dc.subjection-exchangeen
dc.subjectcarbon electron donoren
dc.subjectpolymer bound catalystsen
dc.subjectguest-host systemsen
dc.subjectsupramolecular affinityen
dc.titleRu,Rh,Ru Supramolecular Photocatalysts within Nafion® Membranes: Ion-exchange, Photoelectrolysis and Electron Transfer Processesen
dc.typeDissertationen
thesis.degree.disciplineChemistryen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en
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