Blockchain-based Peer-to-peer Electricity Trading Framework Through Machine Learning-based Anomaly Detection Technique
With the growing installation of home photovoltaics, traditional energy trading is evolving from a unidirectional utility-to-consumer model into a more distributed peer-to-peer paradigm. Besides, with the development of building energy management platforms and demand response-enabled smart devices, energy consumption saved, known as negawatt-hours, has also emerged as another commodity that can be exchanged. Users may tune their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system setpoints to adjust building hourly energy consumption to generate negawatt-hours. Both photovoltaic (PV) energy and negawatt-hours are two major resources of peer-to-peer electricity trading. Blockchain has been touted as an enabler for trustworthy and reliable peer-to-peer trading to facilitate the deployment of such distributed electricity trading through encrypted processes and records. Unfortunately, blockchain cannot fully detect anomalous participant behaviors or malicious inputs to the network. Consequentially, end-user anomaly detection is imperative in enhancing trust in peer-to-peer electricity trading.
This dissertation introduces machine learning-based anomaly detection techniques in peer-to-peer PV energy and negawatt-hour trading. This can help predict the next hour's PV energy and negawatt-hours available and flag potential anomalies when submitted bids. As the traditional energy trading market is agnostic to tangible real-world resources, developing, evaluating, and integrating machine learning forecasting-based anomaly detection methods can give users knowledge of reasonable bid offer quantity. Suppose a user intentionally or unintentionally submits extremely high/low bids that do not match their solar panel capability or are not backed by substantial negawatt-hours and PV energy resources. Some anomalies occur because the participant's sensor is suffering from integrity errors. At the same time, some other abnormal offers are maliciously submitted intentionally to benefit attackers themselves from market disruption. In both cases, anomalies should be detected by the algorithm and rejected by the market. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) are compared and studied in PV energy and negawatt-hour forecasting. The semi-supervised anomaly detection framework is explained, and its performance is demonstrated. The threshold values of anomaly detection are determined based on the model trained on historical data. Besides ambient weather information, HVAC setpoint and building occupancy are input parameters to predict building hourly energy consumption in negawatt-hour trading. The building model is trained and managed by negawatt-hour aggregators. CO2 monitoring devices are integrated into the cloud-based smart building platform BEMOSS™ to demonstrate occupancy levels, further improving building load forecasting accuracy in negawatt-hour trading. The relationship between building occupancy and CO2 measurement is analyzed. Finally, experiments based on the Hyperledger platform demonstrate blockchain-based peer-to-peer energy trading and how the platform detects anomalies.