Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Recovery of Power Systems

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Virginia Tech

Power networks are sophisticated dynamical systems whose stable operation is essential to modern society. We study the swing equation for networks and its linearization (LSEN) as a tool for modeling power systems. Nowadays, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are used across power networks to measure the magnitude and phase angle of electric signals. Given the abundant data that PMUs can produce, we study applications of the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and Loewner framework to power systems. The matrices that define the LSEN model have a particular structure that is not recovered by DMD. We thus propose a novel variant of DMD, called structure-preserving DMD (SPDMD), that imposes the LSEN structure upon the recovered system. Since the solution of the LSEN can potentially exhibit interesting transient dynamics, we study the transient growth for the exponential matrix related to the LSEN. We follow Godunov's approach to get upper bounds for the transient growth and also analyze the relationship of such bounds with classical bounds based on the spectrum, numerical range, and pseudospectra. We show how Godunov's bounds can be optimized to bound the solution operator at a given time. The Loewner framework provides a tool for identifying a dynamical system from tangential measurements. The singular values of Loewner matrices guide the discovery of the true order of the underlying system. However, these singular values can exhibit rapid decay when the interpolation points are far from the poles of the system. We establish a range of bounds for this decay of singular values and apply this analysis to power systems.

power systems modeling, transient growth, Lyapunov upper bounds, Zolotarev number, Sylvester upper bounds, dynamical mode decomposition.