Investigation of Bragg Gratings in Few-Mode Fibers with a Femtosecond Laser Point-by-Point Technique

dc.contributor.authorQiu, Tongen
dc.contributor.committeechairWang, Anboen
dc.contributor.committeememberZhou, Weien
dc.contributor.committeememberZhu, Yizhengen
dc.contributor.committeememberPickrell, Gary R.en
dc.contributor.committeememberYi, Yangen
dc.contributor.departmentElectrical Engineeringen
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-19T09:00:34Zen
dc.date.available2022-01-19T09:00:34Zen
dc.date.issued2022-01-18en
dc.description.abstractThe higher-order modes (HOMs) of an optical fiber has been demonstrated as a new dimension to transmitting signals with the development of mode-division multiplexing (MDM) technique. This dissertation aims to explore the HOMs as an extra degree of freedom for device innovation. In particular, with femtosecond (FS) laser point-by-point (PbP) inscription technique which opens up a unique possibility to explore the HOMs for device innovation, we design, fabricate, and characterize novel-structured fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in the step-index two-mode fibers. We also develop a numerical model for the PbP gratings which has the potential for inverse design problem. Chapter 2 begins with a general framework of MDM with adaptive wavefront shaping in few-mode fibers (FMFs) and multimode fibers (MMFs), followed by two examples in slightly more detail. The fabrication setup and an short overview of the FS laser system will also be covered. In Chapter 3, we show the design, fabrication, and characterization of off-axis Bragg gratings in a step-index two-mode fiber (TMF). Through measuring the transmission and reflection spectra along with the associated reflected mode intensity profiles under different input polarization, we experimentally investigate the off-axis TM-FBGs (FBGs in a TMF) with multiple characteristics reported for the first time to our best knowledge. To highlight, we report the laser-induced birefringence exhibits strong offset dependence, the reflectivity heavily depends on the offset and polarization, and particularly the mode pattern can be controlled solely through polarization. The design and characterization of cross-axis TM-FBGs are presented in Chapter 4. Specifically, these gratings show six primary reflection peaks, which are identified through mode-decomposition based on the intensity profiles through nonlinear optimization problem. We also show in this chapter the development of a numerical model for the general PbP gratings, implementation of this model into standard coupled-wave analysis shows reasonable agreement to the experimental findings. In Chapter 5, discussions and suggestions for future studies are given.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralThe higher-order modes (HOMs) of an optical fiber has been demonstrated as a new space for signal transmission, in the ``mode space'' one can use the modes as distinct multiplexing channel and therefore increase the data capacity of a single fiber. This work aims to explore if the the higher-order modes can also add some extra degree of freedom for device innovation. In particular, we use femtosecond (FS) laser point-by-point (PbP) technique for device fabrication, since the structural change induced by this fabrication methods is highly localized, typically ranging from a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers. Hence this particular fabrication technique offers a unique possibility of exploiting the HOMs for device innovation. In this work, we fabricate, and characterize fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with novel structural designs written within the step-index two-mode fibers, with multiple characteristics reported for the first time as far as we know. We also develop a numerical model for the PbP gratings which has the potential for inverse design problem.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:33745en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/107785en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectFew-mode fibersen
dc.subjectfiber Bragg gratingsen
dc.subjectfemtosecond laseren
dc.subjectpoint-by-pointen
dc.subjectmode-division multiplexingen
dc.titleInvestigation of Bragg Gratings in Few-Mode Fibers with a Femtosecond Laser Point-by-Point Techniqueen
dc.typeDissertationen
thesis.degree.disciplineElectrical Engineeringen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
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