Alanyl-glutamine Supplementation for Clostridioides difficile Infection Treatment (ACT): A double-blind randomized controlled trial


Introduction: Clostridioides difficile is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in the USA, with an estimated 1 billion dollars in excess cost to the healthcare system annually. C. difficile infection (CDI) has high recurrence rate, up to 25% after first episode and up to 60% for succeeding episodes. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that alanyl-glutamine (AQ) may be beneficial in treating CDI by its effect on restoring intestinal integrity in the epithelial barrier, ameliorating inflammation and decreasing relapse. Methods and analysis: This study is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase II clinical trial. The trial is designed to determine optimal dose and safety of oral AQ at 4, 24 and 44 g doses administered daily for 10 days concurrent with standard treatment of non-severe or severe uncomplicated CDI in persons age 18 and older. The primary outcome of interest is CDI recurrence during 60 days post-treatment follow-up, with the secondary outcome of mortality during 60 days post-treatment follow-up. Exploratory analysis will be done to determine the impact of AQ supplementation on intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as intestinal microbial and metabolic profiles. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received University of Virginia Institutional Review Board approval (HSR200046, Protocol v9, April 2023). Findings will be disseminated via conference presentations, lectures and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number NCT04305769.



gastrointestinal infections, infectious diseases, gastroenterology, randomized controlled trial, clinical trials