Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Resistant Starch-Based Cereal Products and Effects on Glycemic and Oxidative Stress Responses in Hispanic Women
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is considered an epidemic in Western countries, and its prevalence is more common in the Hispanic population than in non-Hispanic whites. Postprandial hyperglycemia has been associated with oxidative stress (OS), thus; reducing postprandial glycemia and/or OS through dietary consumption of resistant starch (RS) may be one approach to help modulate glucose and insulin responses. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory properties of cereal food products supplemented with RS. 2) to compare the effects of a single ingestion of granola bars with high (~18 grams of RS) and low (~0 grams of RS) RS compositions on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses (n=14) and oxidative stress parameters (cellular glutathione peroxidase, F2- isoprostanes, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in Hispanic women (n=9). Granola bars and cereals were developed to provide 2 levels (10% and 15%) of RS; isocaloric (0% RS) control samples were prepared with readily digestible (high amylopectin) starch. Samples were stored for up to 4 weeks at 20 °C. Mean composition of the high RS granola bars was 6% protein, 15% moisture, and 18% lipid. RS levels slightly increased from 14 to 16 g/serving after 4 weeks of storage, supporting published research that RS increases with storage due to retrogradation and crystallization of amylose chains. Color became lighter as the level of RS increased (p<0.001). Granola bars containing RS were less brittle (p=0.0043) than control granola bars. Sensory results indicated granola bars/cereals were acceptable. RS-supplemented granola bars were then used for the evaluation of RS ingestion in humans.
There was no difference in postprandial glucose and insulin responses after a single ingestion of a RS-supplemented (18 g) granola bar. No differences were found in the oxidative stress parameters measured. In a subgroup of subjects (n=9), a lower glucose response 30 minutes after RS consumption was found (p=0.0496). Thus, RS consumption may lower fluctuations in blood glucose, which may help manage glucose levels in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Further studies of short term RS consumption are warranted to elucidate its benefits in glucose management.