Characterization of delayed flowering in soybean in Virginia
Delayed flowering has the potential to overcome the problem of restricted vegetative growth, prior to flowering, that is often associated with double-cropped soybeans [Grycine max (L.) Merr.]. Objectives were to study delayed flowering in soybeans as influenced by date of planting, to estimate the lengths of the component vegetative periods in soybeans under short-day conditions, and to study the mode of inheritance of delayed flowering in soybeans. Date of planting experiments conducted in the field at two Virginia locations using 27 cultivars and breeding lines showed that genotypic differences exist for delayed flowering, especially between delayed and normal flowering isolines. Lengths of the juvenile and inductive periods were estimated for some selected early and late flowering genotypes. F85-84l7 had a longer juvenile period, and F85-1226 had both longer juvenile and inductive periods than their respective early flowering isolines and cultivar Essex. cultivar. The method of moving plants from inductive short-days to long-days, which has been used to estimate the length of inductive period, was adapted to estimate the length of the juvenile period as well. Delayed flowering in soybeans appeared to be controlled by two loci, each with two alleles, and delayed flowering appeared to be recessive. Anyone of the genes in the homozygous recessive state delayed flowering. F85-1226 may be segregating for both genes while F85-84l7 appeared to contain only one.