Effects of Nutritional Manipulation on Poultry under Normal and Stressful Conditions

dc.contributor.authorSarsour, Albaraa Hishamen
dc.contributor.committeechairPersia, Michael E.en
dc.contributor.committeememberWilson, Thomas Bainen
dc.contributor.committeememberJacobs, Leonieen
dc.contributor.committeememberJohnson, Sally E.en
dc.contributor.committeememberJacbos, China M.en
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal and Poultry Sciencesen
dc.description.abstractGenetic selection for improved performance has necessitated the frequent update of amino acid requirements to support this improvement. The first objective of this dissertation was to investigate the tryptophan requirement of laying hens in peak production and the lysine and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler chicks under a phase feeding scenario using different models. Digestible tryptophan requirements were estimated to be 137 for egg production, 133 for egg mass, and 133 for feed efficiency using the linear broken-line model. The lysine and sulfur amino acid requirement were estimated by conducting 3 experiments within the starter phase from 2 to 5, 5 to 8, and 8 to 11 days of age. The linear broken line estimate for digestible lysine was 1.22, 1.17 and 1.16% for BWG and 1.31, 1.21, and 1.14% for FCR in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The linear broken line estimate for sulfur amino acids was 0.82, 0.81 and 0.94% for BWG and 0.82, 0.80, and 0.90 for FCR in experiments 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The lysine requirements decreased from 2 to 5 to 8 to 11 days, however the sulfur amino acid requirements increased during that same period. This could be due to other roles that sulfur amino acids play in the body other than growth. The second objective of this dissertation was to investigate the effects of a direct fed microbial (DFM) on broilers exposed to a cyclic heat stress in 2 consecutive experiments. In this experiment, the heat stress treatment reduced body weight gain and lean tissue accretion from 0 to 35 d in both experiments. In Experiment 2, when the litter was reused BWG was increased by 36 g/bird with supplementation of DFM. Ileal digestibility at 28 d (2 hr post HS) was improved with DFM supplementation in both experiments. Serum FITC-d increased with HS at both 28 and 35 d. Serum FITC-d was generally decreased with DFM at 28 d but the response was inconsistent at 35 d. Overall, the results suggest that HS reduced broiler performance and DFM treatment improved intestinal permeability and nutrient digestibility responses to HS in both experiments but did not improve performance until built up litter was used in Experiment 2. The last objective of this dissertation was to investigate the effects of sulfur amino acids (SAA) on broilers exposed to a cyclic heat stress. As expected, HS reduced BWG and worsened FCR. The supplementation of SAA had no effect on live performance. At 28 d of age, supplementation of SAA to birds exposed to HS resulted in reduced intestinal permeability. The interaction was lost at 31 d, but HS still increased intestinal permeability (P ≤ 0.05). Potential oxidative damage was reduced by increased SAA supplementation as indicated by an increase in the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio. These data suggest that intestinal permeability is compromised acutely to at least three days of heat exposure before the bird can adjust, but oxidative damage is more chronic building over the entire 7 d HS period. SAA might have some protective effect on both intestinal permeability and oxidative stress responses to HS.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralTo provide low-cost meat and eggs to consumers, the poultry industry must focus on improving efficiency as well as reduce the impact of stressors within the environment. This is achieved mostly by genetic selection which has resulted in significant improvements in both egg production in laying hens and body weight in broiler chickens. To support this improvement in growth rate birds would require a higher amino acid dense diet to support the increased protein output. One objective of this dissertation was to update the requirement of three key amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, and sulfur amino acids) in both laying hens and broilers for better formulation of diets. These amino acids that were investigated are essential in poultry diets and cannot be produced by the birds. The results from the tryptophan experiment indicated that laying hens need 137 mg of tryptophan per day to maintain maximum egg production. Results from the lysine and sulfur amino acid requirement experiment in broiler chickens indicated that broilers need 1.31% lysine and 0.90% sulfur amino acids to support maximal growth, but these requirements change over time and would need to be adjusted based on the broiler's age. Heat stress in the poultry industry is a major challenge which can affect the growth rate as well as the welfare of broiler chickens. The second objective of this dissertation was to investigate different strategies to ameliorate the effects of heat stress. Supplementing direct fed microbials or probiotics in broiler diets has been proposed as one of those strategies. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the supplementation of a DFM on broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. The results indicated that the DFM was able to ameliorate the negative impacts of the heat stress on nutrient digestibility and intestinal permeability but did not improve the growth of the chickens. Another experiment was conducted to evaluate another strategy to ameliorate the effects of heat stress on broiler chickens which was the supplementation of sulfur amino acids. The sulfur amino acids are not only used for protein synthesis but have other physiological roles in the body that are important specifically during heat stress. Results from this experiment indicated that sulfur amino acids were able to ameliorate the negative effect of heat stress on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress but did not improve the performance of chickens subjected to the heat stress.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.subjectamino aciden
dc.subjectheat stressen
dc.subjectdirect fed microbialen
dc.subjectlaying henen
dc.titleEffects of Nutritional Manipulation on Poultry under Normal and Stressful Conditionsen
thesis.degree.disciplineAnimal and Poultry Sciencesen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
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