Field and laboratory investigations on the efficacy, selectivity, and action of the herbicide clomazone
Clomazone is a recently introduced herbicide for the selective control of grass and broadleaf weeds in soybeans. Field studies were conducted in full-season no-till soybeans to determine the efficacy of clomazone as a preplant and preemergence herbicide. Clomazone applied preemergence provided large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) control equivalent to that of oryzalin applied preplant or preemergence and provided better control of several broadleaf weeds. Control from preplant applications of clomazone was not adequate. Preemergence and preplant incorporated applications of clomazone were compared in conventionally-tilled soybeans. Clomazone efficacy at two depths of incorporation was also investigated. Clomazone applied preemergence generally provided control of large crabgrass and several broadleaf weed species equivalent to preplant incorporated applications. The addition of imazaquin or chlorimuron plus linuron improved smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) control over that provided by clomazone alone. These combinations generally did not improve large crabgrass, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.), and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) control over that of clomazone alone. Shallow incorporation (4 cm) of clomazone provided better weed control than deep incorporations (8 cm). Studies were conducted to evaluate efficacy and to quantify volatilization of three clomazone formulations (emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and a microencapsulated formulation) following soil application. Samples were collected at the first, second, and tenth day after clomazone application. The three clomazone formulations provided control of large crabgrass. Clomazone volatilization was greatest 24 h after application from the emulsifiable concentrate and wettable powder formulations and declined at the second and tenth day after application. Volatilization from the microencapsulated formulation was lower than the other two formulations at all sampling times. Clomazone volatilization was greater from preemergence than preplant incorporated applications. Differential selectivity studies were initiated to determine the absorption, translocation, and metabolism of clomazone in tolerant soybean and smooth pigweed and susceptible redroot pigweed and livid amaranth exposed to foliar and root applied clomazone. Redroot pigweed and livid amaranth absorbed more clomazone through the roots than soybean and smooth pigweed. Absorption of foliar-applied clomazone was limited in all species. Of the clomazone absorbed in all species, most was translocated to the leaf tissue. Two metabolites of clomazone were found. One was determined to be a GS-clomazone conjugate. Differences in clomazone metabolism among species examined were not found. Growth and physiological responses of a normal hybrid ('DeKalb XL67'), a dwarf mutant, and an albino mutant of corn (Zea mays L.) to clomazone and interactions of gibberellin with clomazone on normal corn were examined. The dwarf mutant displayed greater tolerance to clomazone than normal corn. Growth measurements suggested that gibberellin was antagonistic with clomazone.