Morphophysiological diversity and its association with herbicide resistance in Echinochloa ecotypes

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Date
2021-10-01
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Cambridge University Press
Abstract

The genus Echinochloa constitutes some of the most prominent weed species found in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The taxonomy of Echinochloa is complex due to its morphological variations. The morphophysiological diversity and taxonomic characteristics of Echinochloa ecotypes infesting rice fields in Texas are unknown. A total of 54 Echinochloa ecotypes collected during late-season field surveys in 2015 and 2016 were characterized in a common garden in 2017. Plants were characterized for 14 morphophysiological traits, including stem angle; stem color; plant height; leaf color; leaf texture; flag leaf length, width, and angle; days to flowering; panicle length; plant biomass; seed shattering; seed yield; and seed dormancy. Principal component analysis indicated that 4 (plant height, flag leaf length, seed shattering, and seed germination) of the 14 phenological traits characterized here had significantly contributed to the overall morphological diversity of Echinochloa spp. Results showed wide interpopulation diversity for the measured traits among the E. colona ecotypes, as well as diverse intrapopulation variability in all three Echinochloa species studied, including barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.], junglerice [jats:italicEchinochloa colona</jats:italic> (L.) Link], and rough barnyardgrass [jats:italicEchinochloa muricata</jats:italic> (P. Beauv.) Fernald]. Taxonomical classification revealed that the collection consisted of three jats:italicEchinochloa</jats:italic> species, with jats:italicE. colona</jats:italic> being the most dominant (96%), followed by jats:italicE</jats:italic>. jats:italiccrus-galli</jats:italic> (2%), and jats:italicE</jats:italic>. jats:italicmuricata</jats:italic> (2%). Correlation analysis of morphophysiological traits and resistance status to commonly used preemergence (clomazone, quinclorac) and postemergence herbicides (propanil, quinclorac, imazethapyr, and fenoxaprop-ethyl) failed to show any significant association. Findings from this study provided novel insights into the morphophysiological characteristics of jats:italicEchinochloa</jats:italic> ecotypes in rice production in Texas. The morphological diversity currently present in jats:italicEchinochloa</jats:italic> ecotypes could contribute to their adaptation to selection pressure imposed by different management tools, emphasizing the need for a diversified management approach to effectively control this weed species.

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Keywords
Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Agronomy, Plant Sciences, Agriculture, Barnyardgrass, common garden study, genetic diversity, junglerice, rice weeds, taxonomy, MOLECULAR MARKERS, SEED-GERMINATION, RICE, SIZE, LEAF, CLASSIFICATION, PHYLLOPOGON, TRAITS, COLONA, ANGLE, 0703 Crop and Pasture Production, Agronomy & Agriculture
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