Was the Ediacaran Shuram Excursion a globally synchronized early diagenetic event? Insights from methane-derived authigenic carbonates in the uppermost Doushantuo Formation, South China

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The Ediacaran Period is characterized by the most profound negative carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion in Earth history, the ShuramExcursion. Various hypotheses – including the massive oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the oceans, the weathering of terrestrial organic carbon, or the release and oxidation of methane hydrates and/or expelled petroleum from the subsurface – have been proposed as sources of the 13C-depleted carbon. More recently, it has been suggested that global-scale precipitation of early authigenic carbonates, driven by anaerobicmicrobial metabolism in unconsolidated sediments, may have caused the Shuram Excursion, but empirical evidence is lacking. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of a Shuram-associated interval from the uppermost Doushantuo Formation in South China. Our study reveals petrographic evidence of methane-derived authigenic calcite (formed as early diagenetic cements and nodules) that are remarkably depleted in 13C – suggesting a buildup of alkalinity in pore fluids through the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) – and systematically depleted in 18O relative to co-occurring dolomite. Early authigenesis of these minerals is likely to be driven by increased microbial sulfate reduction, triggered by enhanced continental weathering in the context of a marked rise in atmospheric oxygen levels. In light of the finding of methane-derived authigenic carbonates at Zhongling, and based on our basin-scale stratigraphic correlation, we hypothesize that the marked 13C and 18O depletion (including their co-variation noted worldwide) in the Shuram Excursion may reflect an episode of authigenesis occurring within a sulfate–methane transition zone (SMTZ). If true, the Shuram Excursion was then a global biogeochemical response to enhanced seawater sulfate concentration in the Ediacaran ocean driven by the Neoproterozoic oxidation of surface environments. This paleo-oceanographic transition may have therefore paved theway for subsequent evolution and diversification of animals. Our study highlights the significance of an integrated approach that combines petrography, mineralogy, and texture-specificmicro-drilling geochemistry in chemostratigraphic studies.