Equity in Opportunity: Minority Student Enrollment in Advanced, Advanced Placement, and International Baccalaureate English and Mathematics Courses in Virginia Public High Schools
Equal access in education has proven to be less than sufficient regarding academic success for all students (Atchison et al., 2017; Glynn and Wassell, 2018). Previous research indicates that despite efforts to impart significant reforms in public education within the United States, few gains have been made regarding equity among students (Glynn and Wassell, 2018). Some researchers have recommended that school divisions provide equal access to education pathways as a step in the right direction for educators, administrators, and school divisions; as employing equity in education provides all students with the resources needed to experience academic success (Atchison et al., 2017). This is because equity impacts educational opportunities as it entails the experiences of individuals and social identifiers (Atchison et al., 2017).
The purpose of this study was to identify variables that contribute to the minority student enrollment gap in advanced, Advanced Placement (AP), and International Baccalaureate (IB) English and Math courses at the high school level. The researcher used a multiple regression analysis to assess if significant gaps of enrollment in advanced, AP, and IB English and Math courses exist between minority and non-minority students in Virginia public high schools from 2015-2020. The possible impacts of attendance and economic status on minority student enrollment in advanced, AP, and IB English and Math courses were also examined. The results of the study yielded significant enrollment gaps between minority and non-minority students in advanced, AP, and IB English and Math courses in Virginia public high schools.