High-Intensity Discharge Industrial Lighting Design Strategies for the Minimization of Energy Usage and Life-Cycle Cost
Worldwide, the electrical energy consumed by artificial lighting is second only to the amount consumed by electric machinery. Of the energy usage attributed to lighting in North America, approximately fifteen percent is consumed by those lighting products that are classified as High-Intensity Discharge (HID). These lighting products, which are dominated by Metal-Halide and High-Pressure Sodium technologies, range in power levels from 35 to 2000 watts and are used in both indoor and outdoor lighting applications, one category of which is the illumination of industrial facilities. This dissertation reviews HID industrial lighting design techniques and presents two luminaire layout algorithms which were developed to provide acceptable lighting performance based upon the minimum number of required luminaires as determined by the lumen method, regardless of the aspect ratio of the target area. Through the development of lighting design software tools based upon the Zonal Cavity Method and these layout algorithms, models for the quantification of energy requirements, lighting project life-cycle costs, and environmental impacts associated with conventional industrial lighting installations are presented. The software tools, which were created to perform indoor HID lighting designs for the often encountered application of illuminating general rectangular areas with non-sloped ceilings utilizing either High-Bay or Low-Bay luminaires, provide projections of minimal lighting system costs, energy consumption, and environmental impact based upon lamp selection, ballast selection, luminaire selection and lighting system maintenance practices. Based upon several industrial lighting application scenarios, lighting designs are presented using both the new software tools and a commercially available lighting design software package. For the purpose of validating this research, analyses of both designs for each scenario are presented complete with results of illuminance simulations performed using the commercially available software.