Analysis of the Stakeholder Derived Conceptual Models and Exploration of Lung Cancer Screening Barriers in a Medically Underserved Area

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Virginia Tech


The number of new cases of lung and bronchus cancer was 55.8 per 100,000 men and women per year. The number of deaths was 44.7 per 100,000 men and women per year. These rates are age-adjusted and based on 2010-2014 cases and deaths. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined. The knowledge that lung cancer can be successfully treated if caught early has driven a decades-long search to find an accurate and reliable screening test. National Cancer Institute's National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found that annual screening with Low-Dose CT (LDCT) for asymptomatic patients aged 55 to 74, with a smoking history of at least 30 pack-years, and smokers who quit less than 15 years ago, had a 20% reduction in risk of death from lung cancer. Findings of this trial resulted in that LDCT becoming the gold standard of screening for lung cancer. The SEED method is a community-engaged research approach to develop conceptual models and generate patient-centered research questions. This method has been used to engage community stakeholders of Martinsville, Virginia to develop conceptual models of the factors contributing to lung cancer outcomes. In the first manuscript of this dissertation, these models which were produced by 3 different groups of stakeholders have been examined closely to explore the complexity, similarities, and differences. The models were used to produce a research agenda on the topic of factors impacting lung cancer outcomes for future researchers. A literature review was conducted by the study team on the final research agenda. The goal of this literature review was to avoid duplication of research and to focus future research on the identified gaps. The knowledge and attitudes of the health care providers and patients about lung cancer screening and the barriers in the uptake of LDCT were identified as a research gap. The design of the Martinsville lung cancer study described in the second manuscript of this dissertation responds to this identified research gap. These studies and their results shed light on the factors that impact lung cancer outcomes using a community based participatory approach.



Lung cancer, Stakeholder, Conceptual Model, Factor, Category, Provider, Patient, Low-Dose Computed Tomography (LDCT), screening barriers, attitude, knowledge