Recycling Irrigation Reservoir Stratification and Implications for Crop Health and Production

dc.contributor.authorZhang, Haiboen
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, Patricia A.en
dc.contributor.authorBelayneh, Bruk E.en
dc.contributor.authorRistvey, Andrewen
dc.contributor.authorLea-Cox, Johnen
dc.contributor.authorCopes, Warren E.en
dc.contributor.authorMoorman, Gary W.en
dc.contributor.authorHong, Chuanxueen
dc.contributor.departmentVirginia Cooperative Extension (VCE)en
dc.contributor.departmentVirginia Agricultural Experiment Stationen
dc.description.abstractRecycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs) are an emerging aquatic ecosystem and water resource of global significance. This study investigated the vertical distribution of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH in eight RIRs at two nurseries each in Virginia and Maryland from 2011 to 2014. Monomictic thermal stratification was observed from April to October in all RIRs, despite their shallow depths (0.75-3.89 m). The strongest stratification had a top-bottom temperature difference of 21.53°C. The top-bottom temperature difference was positively correlated with water column depth, air temperature, and daily light integral (p < 0.05). Wind speed did not impact the thermal stratification, likely due to their relatively small surface areas. Thermal stratification affected the vertical distribution of DO and pH. The top-bottom differences in DO and pH were greater during stratification periods than nonstratification periods. Water pH in all RIRs was higher at the top than at the bottom with the greatest difference of 4.16 units. Discovery and characterization of thermal stratification in RIRs helps understand water quality dynamics in this novel ecosystem and promote safe and productive water reuse for irrigation. Specifically, water withdrawal depths should be adjusted according to variations in temperature, DO, and pH during the stratification and nonstratification periods to mitigate pathogen risk and improve water treatment efficacy and crop production.en
dc.description.adminPublic domain – authored by a U.S. government employeeen
dc.description.notesThe data for this article can be accessed from at VTechWorks at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. This research was supported in part by Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative (Agreement number 2010-51181-21140), and Hatch Program. We thank collaborating growers for providing access to the study reservoirs and on-site assistances. We thank Frank Dugan and Xiao Yang for their critical review of the manuscript.en
dc.description.sponsorshipVirginia Agricultural Experiment Station; USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Research Initiative [2010-51181-21140]; Hatch Programen
dc.description.versionPublished versionen
dc.format.extent620 - 631 page(s)en
dc.rightsCreative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedicationen
dc.titleRecycling Irrigation Reservoir Stratification and Implications for Crop Health and Productionen
dc.title.serialJournal of the American Water Resources Associationen
dc.typeArticle - Refereeden
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Techen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Agriculture & Life Sciencesen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Agriculture & Life Sciences/CALS T&R Facultyen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/Agriculture & Life Sciences/Hampton Roads ARECen
pubs.organisational-group/Virginia Tech/All T&R Facultyen


Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Thumbnail Image
Zhang - thermal stratification (JAWRA).pdf
631.78 KB
Adobe Portable Document Format
Publisher's Version
License bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
18.09 KB
Adobe Portable Document Format