Cumulative Message Authentication Codes for Resource-Constrained IoT Networks

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In resource-constrained Internet-of-Things networks, the use of conventional message authentication codes (MACs) to provide message authentication and integrity is not possible due to the large size of the MAC output. A straightforward yet naive solution to this problem is to employ a truncated MAC which undesirably sacrifices cryptographic strength in exchange for reduced communication overhead. In this article, we address this problem by proposing a novel approach for message authentication called cumulative MAC (CuMAC), which consists of two distinctive procedures: 1) aggregation and 2) accumulation. In aggregation, a sender generates compact authentication tags from segments of multiple MACs by using a systematic encoding procedure. In accumulation, a receiver accumulates the cryptographic strength of the underlying MAC by collecting and verifying the authentication tags. Embodied with these two procedures, CuMAC enables the receiver to achieve an advantageous tradeoff between the cryptographic strength and the latency in the processing of the authentication tags. Furthermore, for some latency-sensitive messages where this tradeoff may be unacceptable, we propose a variant of CuMAC that we refer to as CuMAC with speculation (CuMAC/S). In addition to the aggregation and accumulation procedures, CuMAC/S enables the sender and receiver to employ a speculation procedure for predicting future message values and precomputing the corresponding MAC segments. For the messages which can be reliably speculated, CuMAC/S significantly reduces the MAC verification latency without compromising the cryptographic strength. We have carried out a comprehensive evaluation of CuMAC and CuMAC/S through simulation and a prototype implementation on a real car.



Computer Science, Information Systems, Engineering, Electrical & Electronic, Telecommunications, Computer Science, Engineering, Cryptography, Authentication, Internet of Things, Receivers, Message authentication, Security, Delays, Controller area network (CAN), Internet of Things (IoT), message authentication code (MAC), CHALLENGES, PROTOCOL, SECURITY, INTERNET, 0805 Distributed Computing, 1005 Communications Technologies