Numerical simulations that characterize the effects of surfactant on droplets in shear flow
Numerical simulations utilizing the code SURFER++ with the incorporation of an insoluble surfactant in the VOF scheme were conducted to characterize the effects of surfactant on a drop in shear flow. The drop is suspended in a matrix liquid. A parameter called reduction, which specifically relates to a percentage decrease in effective surface tension, is used to measure the surfactant amount on the interface. In a model system where reduction = 0.1, viscosity ratio = 1 and density ratio = 1, it was found that stable drops tend to be more elongated and less inclined to the primary flow direction than drops unexposed to surfactant. This can be explained by the location of surfactant at the interface as the drop evolves. Breaking drops also show a flattened angle, but exhibit shorter necks and faster time to break than similar drops without surfactant. As reduction increases, various physical characteristics of the drops change across Reynolds number.