Historical analysis of vocational education in Nepal

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Virginia Tech


The purpose of this research was to analyze the vocational education plans of Nepal through an historical study by identifying their successes and failures. The specific objectives of the study were (a) to provide an historical background of general education and vocational education, (b) to analyze the strengths and inadequacies of the vocational education systems implemented in Nepal since 1950, (c) to review vocational education components implemented in other developing countries, and (d) to provide implications for Nepal's vocational programs. Relevant historical documents were the basis of this research. The publications of the Ministry of Education of Nepal, Tribhuvan University of Nepal and its numerous colleges, international organizations, and authors knowledgeable in the Nepalese education field served as primary and secondary sources.

The development of formal vocational education in Nepal was traced, beginning with its origin in the traditional occupational and social structure. Descriptions, salient features, and objectives of three different education plans implemented since 1950, namely, (a) the basic education system, (b) the multipurpose education system, and (c) the national education system, were compiled. Each 'of these systems increasingly emphasized vocational education and produced many significant results, yet each of these systems was abandoned because of its limited successes. The strengths and weaknesses of these systems were identified and analyzed. Aspects of female education were separately studied because of their special relevance to vocational education in developing countries. The reasons behind the adoption and the failure of these systems were also discussed. External influence in the formulation of the programs, dependence on foreign financial assistance, ambitious expansions, lack of qualified teachers and educational materials, and the lack of coordination among different agencies were identified as the main problems.